Genetic polymorphism of the Landrace pig based on microsatellite markers
The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic variability and population structure of the Landrace population by using 12 microsatellite markers. A total of 90 pigs representing one commercial breed (Landrace) were sampled. Twelve microsatellite loci (SW24, S0155, SW72, SW951, S0386, S0355, SW240, SW857, S0101, SW936 SW911 and S0228) were selected and belong to the list of microsatellite markers recommended by FAO/ISAG. GenAIEx software was used to calculate the allele frequencies, effective number of alleles (Ae), observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity, within-population inbreeding estimate (Fis), Shannon’s information index (ISh). Overall allele frequency values ranged from 0.006 to 0.9333 (at allele SW951120). The number of observed alleles (Na) detected ranged from 5 (S0155 and SW911) to 13 (SW72), with an overall mean of 9.00 ± 0.80 and a total of 108 alleles were observed at these loci. However, the effective number of alleles (Ae) ranged from 1.57 (SW951) to 5.49 (SW240) with a mean of 3.29 ± 0.33. Shannon’s information index (ISh) which measures the level of diversity, was sufficiently high – from 0.79 (for SW951) to 2.01 (for SW240) – with a mean of 1.43 ± 0.09. The overall means for observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities were 0.578 ± 0.009 and 0.662 ± 0.004, respectively, which ranged from 0.307 (SW951) to 0.814 (SW857) and 0.361 (SW951) to 0.818 (SW240), respectively. Of the 12 microsatellites analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, 50% were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 6 were out of equilibrium (P < 0.05). Three mutation models namely, infinite allele model (I.A.M.), two phase model (T.P.M.), stepwise mutation model (S.M.M.) were estimated using the BOTTLENECK software. The results are indicated that the Landrace pig population is non-bottlenecked and remained at mutation-drift equilibrium. The study stands first in genetic characterization of the Ukrainian Landrace pig population through microsatellite markers. The various parameters and values used to quantify genetic variability, such as the high mean (and effective) number of alleles and the expected and observed heterozygosities, indicated high genetic variability in the Ukrainian Landrace pigs. The population has not undergone any recent and/or sudden reduction in the effective population size and remained at mutation-drift equilibrium.
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