Subsidiary methods of pregnancy diagnosis in diary cattle – alternative for the future

Keywords: early pregnancy diagnosis, cattle, early pregnancy factor (EPF), pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG), progesterone


Early pregnancy diagnosis in cows is one of the key elements of effective reproduction management of this species. Still imperfect effectiveness of procedures performed motivates veterinarians for further exploration of new techniques for the diagnosis of pregnancy and their new application. The following article aims to give existing laboratory methods and possibilities for their use in the diagnosis of pregnancy before the 3rd day of insemination. In particular, substances that can be identified as soon as possible after insemination are presented: early pregnancy factor (EPF), progesterone (P4), estrogen sulfate and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG). A detailed description of these substances and their role in the formation and maintenance of celibacy in cows are given. The possibility of using laboratory methods in modern milk reproduction protocols is shown. From the perspective of modern literature sources, the most effective laboratory methods for diagnosing pregnancy in dairy farming today are the definition of an early pregnancy factor (EPF) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG). Description of the methods available on the market and a new compilation (protocols) above techniques may be of interest for veterinarian involved in cattle reproduction. Despite the rapid development and the presence of more and more effective ultrasound devices, a practical veterinarian should not forget about the existence of indirect methods of diagnosis of pregnancy, which in large herds can significantly improve the economic conditions for the management of reproduction of cows in the future.


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Sharan, M., & Shalovylo, S. (2018). Subsidiary methods of pregnancy diagnosis in diary cattle – alternative for the future. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Agricultural Sciences, 20(89), 108-113.