Effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on the reproduction traits in Ukrainian Meat sows
Purebred Ukrainian Meat (UM) breed pigs, which came from Limited Liability Company “Tavriyskie Svin'I” herd located in Skadovsky district (Kherson region, Ukraine), were studied. The reproduction traits investigated were total number of piglets born (TNB), number of piglets born alive (NBA), frequency of stillborn piglets (FSB), number of weaned piglets (NW), total weaning weight of litter (TWWL) and average piglet weaning weight (APWW) for sows farrowing between 2006 and 2012. The analysis covered reproductive characteristics of 49 sows in the first nine parities (n = 457 litters). The sows originated from different the UM dam lines. Two month farrowing periods (January/February, March/April, May/June, July/August, September/October, and November/December) were constructed and used for reproduction traits. Data were analyzed by use of general linear model (GLM) procedure with the statistical package MINITAB v. 15. The estimates of reproduction traits for UM sows were 10.73 ± 0.43 ind. for TNB, 9.36 ± 0.39 ind. for NBA, 10.5 ± 2.2% for FSB, 9.07 ± 0.30 ind. for NW, 128.1 ± 5.7 kg for TWWL and 14.39 ± 0.49 kg for APWW. Litter size had a nonlinear effect on probability of stillbirth; piglets from small and large litters were more susceptible to die at farrowing with a minimum probability (near 5.0%) for intermediate litters of 8–10 piglets. Results here indicate that weak genetic variation exists in different the UM dam lines for the reproduction traits. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that influence of parity on the observed traits of litter size was highly statistically significant (P < 0.05–0.001). The TNB, NBA and NW decreased in the first-second parities and thereafter increased with the number of parities, reaching a maximum in parities 5 and 6. FSB was lowest in parities 2, 3 and 5. Farrowing month significantly influenced some reproduction traits also. Sows farrowing in May/June had the highest NW, TWWL and APWW.
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