Features of selection methods in the period of creation of Ukrainian red dairy breed
Investigation of the selection methods, used during various stages of the creating the Ukrainian red dairy breed, has an actual significance in the evaluation of the methodology of the breed formation process. A comparative analysis found that the female ancestors of the studied cows according to milk yield significantly differed. With each subsequent stage, bulls-breeders, which were used in the breeding process, prevailed over female ancestors of the previous stage according to the milk productivity. The level of maternity benefit of the parents of the second and third stages was higher than that of the parents of the first stage mothers. However, for fatty milk, the parents of stage I parents had a superiority, compared with the second and third stages. While analyzing the milk yield of mothers of cows, it was found a certain pattern. In particular, the increase in milk in the next stages of the breeding of Ukrainian red dairy breed. According to the productivity of cows-primates, derived from different selection methods, determined by the level of support of female ancestors, the effectiveness of the use of highly heterogeneous selection is established. The difference in comparison with the homogeneous selection for the second and third stages was 462 kg (P > 0.999) and 235 kg of milk, respectively. As for the first stage of breeding of Ukrainian red dairy breed, the best results were obtained from the use of moderately heterogeneous selection. Its efficiency is confirmed by the highest milk yield of 359 kg (P > 0.95) of milk compared with homogeneous selection. There was a tendency to increase the fat content in milk of animals in the I, II and III stages of the breeding process in a highly heterogeneous selection in comparison with homogeneous selection, the difference was accordingly 0.04%, 0.05% and 0.03%. It should be noted that in the second stage, heterogeneous selection was effective. Along with the abovementioned, there is a general tendency of reduction of fatty milk production in ІІІ stage compared to І and ІІ stages. This is explained by the inclusion in the program of the breeding process of the Ukrainian red dairy breed using the Holstein breeder bulls. Based on the analysis of the data obtained, we have a convincing confirmation of the effectiveness of a highly heterogeneous selection. In the first and second stages of breeding, the prevail of milk fat was 15.4 kg (P > 0.99) and 12.9 kg (P > 0.95) compared to homogeneous selection. Thus, it is logical to increase the level of milk productivity in the studied cows from the first to the third stage of the withdrawal of Ukrainian red dairy breeds with the advantage of using highly heterogeneous selection.
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