Prospects of transgenic plants in the agro-sphere of Lviv region
The state and prospects of the use of transgenic plants in agriculture of Lviv region are considered in the paper. Transgenic plants are a kind of genetically modified organisms obtained by biotechnological methods using trans-transfer (between unrelated species) genes. In recent years, such cultures have become widespread in the world. The vast majority of soy, corn and other crops are planted with GM varieties. In the EU countries there is no broad perception of such cultures and there are significant restrictions on their distribution. Approximately 70 types of GMOs are allowed in the EU, including many decorative products (flowers) and about 58 GMOs for use in food and feed. In the world, 168 lines of genetically modified plants: corn, rape, cotton, potatoes, soya, rice, tomatoes, wheat and others were registered and allowed to be used for industrial production of food and feed. Our country also has some experience in obtaining transgenic organisms. According to unofficial data, in Ukraine transgenic 60–70% soybeans, 10–20% corn, 5% rape. In the near future, Ukraine should develop a clear concept of attitude towards GMOs, and the absence of a position on this issue complicates the planning of activities of the agro-sector. In the Lviv region there are prospects for growing GM varieties of soybean, corn and sunflower; there is evidence that a significant part of the crops of the first belongs to the modified varieties. Growing of GM sunflower in comparison with the usual one will have limited competitive advantages. Of the other crops that the area is specialized in, one can name potatoes whose GM varieties are used mainly for technical needs, and wheat, whose GM varieties have not yet been sufficiently tested. In the world market, there is a demand for genetically modified crops, an estimated 68% of Ukrainian agroholdings claim to be willing and able to grow GM crops for their legalization in Ukraine.
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