Immunogenetic control of the origin of the Hutsul horse breed
The article analyzes the origin of horses of Hutsul breed, which gives an opportunity to make a certain idea about the genotypic features of animals. They were found to have specific features in the distribution of factors and alleles of the D-system of blood groups. An individual analysis of the genotypes of Hutsul horses shows that their diversity is quite significant. Generally, genotypes occur that combine the dghm allele with the cgm and bcm alleles. At the individual level, animal testing materials for blood groups create an information base to study the genetic structure of a population. Analysis of the genetic structure of the herd shows its considerable variability. It was found 9 alleles in the herd with a frequency from 0.014 to 0.264. The most common alleles are de; sgm, with frequencies of 0.264 and 0.220 respectively. The saturation of the herd with these alleles is primarily related to the genotypes (de/cgm) of the stallions used by Vulcan and Centaur. The degree of homogeneity of the flock gene pool is characterized by a homozygosity coefficient (CA) of 0.173 and indicates the theoretically expected frequency of homozygous genotypes in panmyxia, that is, the absence of directed selection of parental pairs in the same number of females and males. Although the herd does not meet the requirements of panmyxia, there is a clear deficiency in homozygotes. In general, immunogenetic studies provide grounds for organizing a breeding process for the reconstruction of the Hutsul breed gene pool with the restoration of its inherent qualities, which will enable it to obtain competitive breeding products. The study of the structure of the population provides material for the analysis of genetic processes occurring at certain stages of the breeding process as a result of the use of different breeding methods. The results of the testing, which is still limited by the number of horses of the Hutsul breed, form the basis for further systematic application of genetic marking in the work on the formation of the Hutsul breed in the Ukrainian Carpathian region.
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