Influence of ecological and geographical features of breeding brown Carpathian rocks on its genetic structure
Studying the genetic structure of cattle makes it possible to characterize it by molecular genetic markers, which in the future enable effective breeding work with animals breed to achieve the desired characteristics. Lately is becoming more apparent the need to preserve genetic diversity namely due to the peculiarities of breeding in different ecological and geographical regions. Therefore, we conducted an investigation of the genetic structure of animals of pure-bred Brown Carpathian (BC), Schwyz (S) breeds, their mixtures of the first (F1) generation (1/2BС+1/2S), Brown Carpathian with a share of hereditary breed of Schwyz breed up to 50 and more than 50%, as well as Brown Carpathian, raised in flat and mountain farms. Genetic structure was evaluated by genetically determined polymorphism of groups of genetic-biochemical systems. Of the 14 investigated loci that encode proteins and blood enzymes, polymorphism was identified in five loci, namely: transferrin (Tf), ceruloplasmin (Cr), amylase-1 (Am-1), hemoglobin (Hb), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (NP). As a result of population-genetic analysis of polymorphic loci of proteins and enzymes of blood in animals of Brown Carpathian breed the following data were obtained:the highest level of heterozygosity (H) was found at the transferrin locus – 95%, the lowest – at the hemoglobin locus – 9.5%.The heterozygosity at the ceruloplasmin locus was 68%. Evaluation of heterozygosity at the purinnucleoside phosphorylase locus was not possible because part of the animals with the NP-H (high activity) phenotype could carry a low activity variant in the heterozygous state. For all polymorphic systems in the Brown Carpathian breed genotype frequency distribution was in a balanced state according to Hardy-Weinberg law, except for the transferrin locus,where a statistically significant deficiency of homozygotes (P > 0.95) in the most common allelic variants is detected. Analysis of the dendrogram showed that groups of animals of Brown Carpathian breed with different proportion of hereditary Schwyz form one cluster that is clearly differentiated from purebred schwyzes. First-generation domestic animals (F1), by genetic structure, are significantly closer to the maternal Brown Carpathian breed than to the Schwyz one. Thus, the data obtained indicate that the specific characteristic of Brown Carpathian breed may be a relatively increased breeding value of a number of allelic interlocal associations, in which the loci of the genetic-biochemical systems are involved in one way or another. Genetic analysis of these systems showed the presence in the breed of its specific features, which are specific to it.
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