Climate vibrations and ecosystemogenesis of the Ukrainian Society from the Birth of Christ to the formation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Fluctuations in the climate of Eurasia during the Middle Holocene led to various adaptations of agriculture and livestock, which were engaged in the primitive ethnic groups in the current territory of Ukraine. Using the methods of paleogeography, paleoclimatology, paleobiology, the dynamics of landscape ecosystems are reconstructed and presented in the form of verbal and graphic models of the past dynamics. This allows us to understand the nature of agricultural sustainability, climatogenic transformation of landscapes and the peculiarities of the formation of the Ukrainian ethnic group in a dynamic natural environment. We show the decisive role of natural properties of local primary landscape ecosystems in the history of Ukrainian society from the time of the collapse of the Roman Empire to the beginning of the small ice age in Ukraine. The dynamics of the global and local climate (mesoclimate) is traced and analyzed and its connection and significant influence on the motivation of tribal movement in Central and Eastern Europe are shown. Migration waves, population outbreaks in some tribes, and the decline and assimilation of others are linked to the biotic, behavioral, and ultimately social and economic adaptation of peoples and the changing natural environment. The most effective and efficient adaptation is determined by the bioethological advantages of aboriginal (indigenous - those formed in the primary ecosystem) human tribal populations, prone to use their own ways of survival in local natural landscapes and often able to assimilate immigrant cultures. customs. According to our conclusions, based on the study of climate history and age dynamics of landscape ecosystems, the agricultural adaptability of primitive ethnic groups was the key to the survival and transformation of tribes into a nation during the Middle Holocene. The relatively stable ten-thousand-year climatic period of the Holocene already had extremes of high temperatures in the Minoan (Trypillia period), Roman warm subperiods (the period of prosperity of the Russian state), which are not yet surpassed. Ending in the middle of the twentieth century. it passes into the Anthropocene, and the climate changes rapidly in the direction of warming. Without an in-depth paleoecological analysis of the dynamics of landscape and biome ecosystems, it will be impossible to develop rational ways to adapt the agro-complex and environmentally safe nature management to the modern transformation of the Earth's climate and mesoclimate.
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