State and prospects of sheep breeding development in the western region of Ukraine
Sheep farming is considered a powerful source of lamb production. The analysis of the current state of sheep breeding in the western region of Ukraine and the changes that have occurred since 1991 in this industry have been analyzed. The work was performed on the basis of generalization, analysis, synthesis and comparison of data of the State Statistics Committee for the period 1991–2019, surveys of owners of farms and farms that raise sheep, scientific publications, including online publications and web pages. The article outlines the priority areas of industry development and ways to implement them. It is noted that today sheep breeding in Ukraine is characterized by the zonal principle of placement. The main factor in this process is natural climatic and economic conditions. Analysis of statistical data shows that since 1992 the number of sheep in Ukraine, including farms of the western region, has significantly decreased, namely from 7896.2 thousand (1991) as of January 1, 2019 in all categories of farms Ukraine's sheep population decreased to 698.5 thousand or 11.3 times, and in the regions of the western region – from 848.6 thousand to 180.7 thousand or 4.7 times. It is noted that currently the bulk of the sheep population both in Ukraine and in its West (75.3 and 86.6 %, respectively) is concentrated in households, while at agricultural enterprises this figure is at the level of 24.7 and 13.4 %, respectively. The main shortcomings in the field of sheep breeding in the western region of Ukraine are reflected and possible ways to eliminate them are outlined. Sheep farms should take the following important measures: genetic improvement of meat and wool breeds and types available in the region by purebred breeding and crossing of local low-yielding uterine livestock with breeders of specialized imported meat breeds; creation of new zonal genotypes of meat and wool animals with high productive and reproductive qualities; introduction of the newest modern industrial technologies of keeping and fattening of sheep for lamb production; creation of a network of specialized slaughterhouses capable of slaughtering sheep, assessment and varietal cutting of carcasses in accordance with the requirements of international standards and specific consumers; improving the market for finished products.
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