Influence of alimentary factors on the absorption of feed nutrients and poultry productivity

Keywords: poultry, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, micro- and macronutrients, amino acids, vitamins, anti-nutrients.


The article is a summary of the literature on the main aspects of the modern bird feeding system. Theoretical aspects and results of experimental research of scientists on the substantiation of parameters of protein and amino acid nutrition are given, which is an important factor that, under appropriate conditions can significantly guarantee the realization of the genetic potential of corresponding breeds and crosses of poultry. It is shown that an important aspect of protein nutrition is the ratio of feed amino acids. Their negative interaction can be caused by a deficiency of one or more amino acids, an imbalance between them, antagonism, and toxicity. This is accompanied by effects on various physiological and biochemical processes, significantly affects appetite, intestinal absorption, renal reabsorption and transport of amino acids, their catabolism, rate of protein decomposition, synthesis, and formation of toxic metabolic products. The data show that the required level of energy for the bird's body is provided by carbohydrates (mainly of plant origin) and lipids (fat supplements of various origins). It is noted that lipids promote the absorption, transport, and deposition of fat-soluble vitamins. The effectiveness of using fat supplements as energy depends on their source. At the same time, among the indispensable nutrients that have a significant impact on growth intensity, reproductive quality, poultry productivity, and biological value of products, an important role is played by macro-and micronutrients. Many researchers emphasize that along with the use of traditional feeds in poultry feeding, the possibilities of non-traditional cereals rich in protein and lipids are not fully used. A limiting factor in their use is the presence in their composition of anti-nutrients contained in many feeds. Once in the digestive tract of animals, they negatively affect the absorption of feed nutrients. In most cases, the consumption of such feed by animals is manifested in growth retardation, increased feed consumption, hormonal effects, and, less frequently, in the dysfunction of certain organs.


Abouelezz, F. M. K., Sarmiento-Franco, L., Santos-Ricalde, R., & Solorio-Sanchez, F. (2012). Outdoor egg production using local forages in the tropics. World’s Poultry Science. J., 68, 679–692. doi: 10.1017/S0043933912000815.

Adeola, O., & Cowieson, A. (2011). Board‒invited review: Opportunities and challenges in using exogenous en-zymes to improve nonruminant animal production. Journal of Animal Science, 89(10), 3189‒3218. doi: 10.2527/jas.2010-3715.

Ahmad, T., Mushtaq, T., Sarwar, M., Hooge, D., & Mirza, M. (2006). Effect of different non‒chloride sodium sources on the performance of heat‒stressed broiler chickens. B.r Poult. Scі., 47(3), 249‒56. doi: 10.1080/00071660600753342.

Akande, K. E., Doma, U. D., Agu, H. O., & Adamu, H. M. (2010). Major antinutrients found in plant protein sources: Their effect on nutrition. Pak. J. Nutr., 9, 827–832. doi: 10.3923/pjn.2010.827.832.

Allan, D. J. (2010). The roles of extracellular proteins, polysaccharides and signals in the interactions of rhi-zobia with legume roots. FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 34(2), 150‒170. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2009.00205.x.

Amerah, A. M., Ravindran, V., Lentle, R. G., & Thomas, D. G. (2007). Feed particle size: Implications on the digestion and performance of poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal, 63(03), 439‒455. doi: 10.1017/S0043933907001560.

Antoniuk, V. O. (2013). Lektyny: poshyrennia i funktsiia v zhyvykh orhanizmakh ta osoblyvosti zahotivli syrovy-ny. Ukrainskyi biofarmatsevtychnyi zhurnal, 6(29), 4‒10 (in Ukrainian).

Antoniuk, V. O., Panchak, L. V., Starykovych, M. O., & Stoika, R. S. (2013). Novyi manozospetsyfichnyi lek-tyn z korenevyshch liliinyka ruduvatoho (Hemerocal-lis fulva L.): ochystka ta vlastyvosti. Ukrainskyi bio-khimichnyi zhurnal 85(2), 27‒32 (in Ukrainian).

Ao, T., Cantor, A., Pescatore, A., & Pierce, J. (2008). In vitro evaluation of feed‒grade enzyme activity at pH levels simulating various parts of the avian digestive tract. Anim. Feed Science. Technol., 140(3-4), 462‒468. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.04.004.

Ao, T., & Pierce, J. (2013). The replacement of inorganic mineral salts with mineral proteinates in Poultryry diets. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 3(69), 5–16. doi: 10.1017/S0043933913000019.

Auhatova, S. N., & Il'bul'din, Ju. F. (1998). Vlijanie gojtrogennyh veshhestv na jeffektivnost' ispol'zo-vanija joda v organizme zhivotnyh Fundamental'nye i prikladnye aspekty sovremennoj biohimii: Trudy SPbGMU im. akad. I. P. Pavlova, 2, 331‒334 (in Rus-sian).

Bak, M. J., Hong, S. G., Lee, J. W., & Jeong, W. S. (2012). Red ginseng marc oil inhibits iNOS and COX‒2 via NFκB and p38 pathways in LPS‒stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Molecules, 17(12), 13769‒13786. doi: 10.3390/molecules171213769.

Baker, D. H., Batal, A. B., Parr, T. M., Augspurger, N. R., & Parsons, C. M. (2002). Ideal ratio (relative to lysine) of tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine, and valine for chicks during the second and third weeks posthatch. Poultry Science, 81(4), 485‒494. doi: 10.1093/ps/81.4.485.

Balanchuk, I. M. (2014). Balans mineralnykh rechovyn v orhanizmi kacheniat za riznykh rivniv proteinovoho zhy-vlennia. Suchasne ptakhivnytstvo, 6(139), 8–10 (in Ukrainian).

Balukh, N. (2012). Vmist mineralnykh elementiv u pechintsi perepilok za dii enzymnoi dobavky. Tvarynnytstvo Ukrainy, 1‒2, 40–42 (in Ukrainian).

Barnard, L. (2015). Pozytyvna diia kombinatsii fer-mentiv. Nashe ptakhivnytstvo, 3(39), 64–66 (in Ukrainian).

Berres, J., Vieira, S. L., Dozier, W. A., Cortês, M. E., Nogueira, E. T., & Kutschenko, M. (2010). Broiler re-sponses to reduced‒protein diets supplemented with valine, isoleucine, glycine, and glutamic acid. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 19(1), 68‒79. doi: 10.3382/japr.2009-00085.

Berres, J., Vieira, S. L., Kidd, M. T., Taschetto, D., Freitas, D. M., Barros, R., & Nogueira, E. T. (2010). Supple-menting L‒valine and L‒isoleucine in lowprotein corn and soybean meal all‒vegetable diets for broilers. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 19(4), 373‒379. doi: 10.3382/japr.2009-00093.

Biletskyi, Ye. M., & Artemenko, O. B. (2007). Vplyv mikroelementiv tsynku, midi, marhantsiu ta kobaltu na vidtvorni ta produktyvni yakosti indychok Pta-khivnytstvo: Mizhvid. temat. nauk. zb. IP UAAN, 60, 25‒35 (in Ukrainian).

Biriukova, H., & Tatarchuk, O. (2011). Stres likviduiut vitaminy ta selen. Nashe ptakhivnytstvo, 1, 56–57 (in Ukrainian).

Brillard, J. P. (2001). Future Strategies For Broiler an In-ternational Perspective. Word’s Poul. Sc. J., 57(3), 243–250. doi: 10.1079/WPS20010017.

Brumano, G., Gomes, P. C., Donzele, J. L., Santiago, H., Rostagno, T. C. R., & Carvalho, H. H. M. (2010). Níveis de metionina+ cistina digestível para poedeiras leves no período de 42 a 58 semanas de idade. Re-vista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 39(9), 1984‒1992. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982010000900017.

Campestrini, E., Barbosa, M. J., Nunes, R. V., Gasparino, E. В., Silva, W. T., & Khül, R. (2010). Níveis de lisina digestível com dois balanços eletrolíticos para pintos de corte na fase inicial, de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Re-vista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 39(1), 151‒157. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982010000100020.

Campos, A. A., Rostagno, H. S., Nogueira, E. T., Albino, L. F., Pereira, J. P., & Maia, R. C. (2012). Atualização da proteína ideal para frangos de corte: arginina, iso-leucina, valina e triptofano. Revista Brasileira de Zoo-tecnia, 41(2), 326‒332. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982012000200014.

Chabb, L. Dzh. (2005). Antipitatel'nye faktory v korm-lenii zhivotnyh. Novejshie dostizhenija v issledovanii pitanija zhivotnyh. Per. s angl., vyp. 4. “Agropromiz-dat”: Moskva (in Russian).

Corzo, A., Lіar, R., & Kidd, M. (2009). Limitations of dietary isoleucine and valine in broiler chick diets. Poultry Science, 88(9), 1934‒1938. doi: 10.3382/ps.2009-00109.

Corzo, A.Т., Fritts, C. A., Kidd, M. T., & Kerr, B. J. (2005). Response of broiler chicks to essential and non-essential amino acid supplementation of low crude protein diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 118(3-4), 319–327. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.11.007.

Cupertino, E. S., Gomes, P. C., Albino, L. F., Donzele, J. L., Mello, H. H., Schmidt, M., & Calderano, A. A. (2009). Exigência nutricional de lisina digestível para galinhas poedeiras de 54 a 70 semanas de idade. Revista Bra-sileira de Zootecnia, 38(3), 480‒487. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982009000300012.

Czerwiński, J., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., & Gralak, M. (2005). Response of rats to a moderate intake of soybean lectin. J. Anim Feed Science, 14(1), 537‒540. doi: 10.22358/jafs/70731/2005.

Dean, D. W., Bidner, T. D., & Southern, L. L. (2006). Gly-cine supplementation of low protein, amino ac-id‒supplemented diets supports equal performance of broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 85(2), 288–296. doi: 10.1093/ps/85.2.288.

Diarra, S. S., Usman, B. A., Igwebuike, J. U., & Yisa, A. G. (2010). Breeding for eficiente phytate‒phosphorus utilization by Poultry. International Journal of Poultry Science, 9(10), 923‒930. doi: 10.3923/ijps.2010.923.930.

Domingues, C. H., Sgavioli, S. Т., Praes, M. F., Duarte, K. F., Castiblanco, D. M., Santos, E. T., & Junqueira, O. M. (2012). Lysine and methionine + cystine for laying hens during the post‒molting phase. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 14(3), 159‒232. doi: 10.1590/S1516-635X2012000300005.

Dozier, D. A., Kerr, B. J., Corzo, A., Kidd, M. T., Weber, T. E., & Bregendahl, K. (2008). Apparent metabolisable energy of glycerine for broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 87, 317‒322. doi: 10.3382/ps.2011-01510.

Duarte, F. D., Lara, L. J., Baião, N. C., Cançado, S. V., & Teixeira, J. L. (2010). Efeito da inclusão de diferentes fontes lipídicas em dietas para frangos de corte sobre o desempenho, rendimento e composição da carcaça. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zoo-tecnia, 62(2), 439‒444. doi: 10.1590/S0102-09352010000200025.

Duarte, K. F., Junqueira, O. M., Filardi, R. S., Siqueira, J. C., Puzotti, M. M., Garcia, E. A., & Laurentiz, A. C. (2013). Digestible tryptophan requirements for broilers from 22 to 42 days old. Revista Brasileira de Zoo-tecni, 42(10), 728‒733. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982013001000006.

Dychakovska, V. (2011). Nyzki pryrosty – nedozvolena rozkish! Nashe ptakhivnytstvo, 4, 24–27 (in Ukraini-an).

Egorov, I. A., & Tarasov, N. V. (2012). Jeffektivnost' obogashhenija kombikormov dlja brojlerov lizinom i me-tioninom. Kormlenie sel'skohozjajstvennyh zhivotnyh i kormoproizvodstvo, 4, 36‒43 (in Rus-sian).

Engberg, R. M., & Hedemann, M. S. (2002). The influ-ence of grinding and pelleting of feed on the microbial composition and activity in the digestive tract of broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sc., 43, 569‒579. doi: 10.1080/0007166022000004480.

Faitarone, A. B., Garcia, E. A., Roça, R. O., Andrade, E. N., Vercese, F., & Pelícia, K. В. (2016). Yolk color and lipid oxidation of the eggs of commercial white layers fed diets supplemented with vegetable oils. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 18(1), 9‒16. doi: 10.1590/1516-635X1801009-016.

Fisinin, V. I., Egorov, I. A., & Draganov, I. F. (2011). Kormlenie sel'skohozjajstvennoj pticy; GJeOTAR‒Medija: Moskva (in Russian).

Fouad, A. M. (2021). Tryptophan in poultry nutri-tion: Impacts and mechanisms of action. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 2021. doi: 10.1111/jpn.13515.

Frikha, M., Safaa, H. M., Serrano, M. P., Arbe, X., & Mateos, G. (2009). Influence of the main cereal and feed form of the diet on performance and digestive tract traits of brown‒egg laying pullets. Poultry Sci-ence, 88(1), 994‒1002. doi: 10.3382/ps.2008-00480.

Goulart, C. C., Costa, F. G. P., Silva, J. H. V., Souza, J. G., Rodrigues, V. P., & Oliveira, C. F. S. (2011). Require-ments of digestible methionine+ cystine for broiler chickens at 1 to 42 days of age. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 40(4), 797‒803. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982011000400013.

Hale, L. L., Barber, S. J., Corzo, A., Kidd, M. T. (2004). Isoleucine needs of thirty- to forty-two day-old fe-male chickens: Growth and carcass responses. Poult. Sci., 83, 1986–1991. doi: 10.1093/ps/83.12.1986.

Hassan, I. A., Elzubeir, E. A., & Tinay, A. H. (2003). Growth and apparent absorption of minerals in broiler chicks fed diets with low or high tannin contents. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 35, 189‒196. doi: 10.1023/a:1022833820757.

Honda, K., Kamisoyama, H., Isshiki, Y., & Hasegawa, S. (2009). Effects of dietary fat levels on nutrients digestibility at different sites of chicken intestines. J. Poultryry Science, 46, 291‒295. doi: 10.2141/jpsa.46.291.

Hunchak, A. V., Kystsiv, V. O., & Ratych, I. B. (2010). Vydovi osoblyvosti lipidnoho skladu ta vmistu produktiv perekysnoho okysnennia lipidiv u tkanynakh pechinky i zhovtkiv yaiets indykiv ta hu-sei. Biolohiia tvaryn, 12(1), 71‒75 (in Ukrainian).

Hunchak, A. V., Sirko, Ya. M., Kyryliv, B. Ya., Kystsiv, V. O., Lisna, B. B., Koretchuk, S. I., Stefanyshyn, O. S., Kaminska, M. V., & Martyniuk, U. A. (2016). Vplyv roslynnykh ekstraktiv na protsesy travlennia v orhanizmi ptytsi, produktyvnist ta yakist produktsii. Biolohiia tvaryn, 18(2), 25‒35 (in Ukrainian).

Ibatullin, I. I., Kryvenok, M., & Ilchuk, I. (2014). Te-oretychne ta eksperymentalne obgruntuvannia zminy po-treb kurei batkivskoho stada u treonini i metionini zalezhno vid viku ta produktyvnosti. Suchasne pta-khivnytstvo, 2(135), 4–7. URL: UJRN/Sps_2014_2_3 (in Ukrainian).

Ibatullin, I., Kryvenok, M., & Ilchuk, I. (2013). Ratsiony z valinom dlia kurei yaiechnoho napriamu. Tvarynny-tstvo Ukrainy, 12, 37–42 (in Ukrainian).

Ibuki, M., Fukui, K., & Yamauchi, K. (2014). Effect of dietary mannanase‒hydrolysed copra meal on growth performance and intestinal histology in broiler. Jour-nal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 98(4), 636‒642. doi: 10.1111/jpn.12105.

Iehorov, B. V. (2011). Tekhnolohiia vyrobnytstva kombikormiv: pidruchnyk dlia stud. vyshch. navch. zakladiv. Druka-rskyi dim: Odesa (in Ukrainian).

Ionov, I. A., Shapovalov, S. O., & Rudenko, E. V. (2011). Kriterii i metody kontrolja metabolizma v organizme zhivotnyh i ptic; NAAN: Har'kov (in Russian).

Ionova, I. A. (2013). Efektyvna hodivlia silskohospo-darskoi ptytsi. Ahrarna nauka: K. (in Ukrainian).

Jamroz, D., Wiliczkiewicz, A., Orda, J., Wertelecki, T., & Skorupińska, J. (2002). Aspects of development of di-gestive activity of intestine in young chickens, ducks and geese. J. Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 86(11‒12), 353‒366. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0396.2002.00388.x.

Jiang, Q., Waldroup, P. W., & Fritts, C. A. (2005). Improv-ing utilization of diets low in crude protein fro broiler chicken, 1. Evaluation of specific amino acid supple-mentation to diets low in crude protein. International Journal Poultry Science, 4(3), 115–122. doi: 10.3923/ijps.2005.115.122.

Khalid, K. K., Zuki, A. B., Noordin, M. M., Babjee, S. M., & Zamri‒Saad, M. (2010). Morphological study of pancreatic duct in red jungle fowl. Afri. J. Biotechnol, 9(42), 7209‒7215. doi: 10.5897/AJB10.934.

Kienle, G., & Kiene, H. (2010). Influence of Viscum al-bum L (European Mistletoe) Extracts on Quality of Life in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Con-trolled Clinical Studies. Integr. Cancer Ther., 9(2), 142‒157. doi: 10.1177/1534735410369673.

King, E. J., Witt, F. H., Merwe, H. J., Hugo, A., & Fair, M. D. (2013). The effect of lipid saturation on nutrient di-gestibility of layer diets. South African Journal of An-imal Science, 43(5(1)), 130‒134. doi: 10.4314/sajas.v43i5.25.

Kocher, A., Hower, J. M., & Moran, C. A. (2015). A dualenzyme product containing protease in broiler di-et: efficacy and tolerance. Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition, 3(6), 1‒14. doi: 10.1017/jan.2015.4.

Kohrle, I. (2000). Flavonoids as a risk factor for goiter and hypothyroidism. Merck European Thyroid Sym-posium, 2000, 41‒53.

Kononenko, S. I. (2014). Lipidnoe pitanie cypljat–brojlerov. Efektyvne ptakhivnytstvo, 6, 40–44 (in Russian).

Kryvenok, M. Ya., & Ilchuk, I. I. (2015). Obhruntuvannia spivvidnoshen treoninu i tryptofanu u ratsionakh ku-rei‒nesuchok. Suchasne ptakhivnytstvo, 3‒4, 4‒8. URL: (in Ukrainian).

Krzystanek, M., Palasz, A., Krzystanek, E., Krupka‒Matuszczyk, I., Wiaderkiewicz, R., & Skowronek, R. (2011). S‒adenosyl L‒methionine in CNS diseases. Psychiatr Pol., 45(6), 923‒931.

Kutkina, L. B. (2006). Lipidnyi i Zhyrnokyslotnyi Sklad ta Perekysni Protsesy u Tkanynakh Embrioniv i Huseniat za Riznoho Vmistu Lipidiv i Vitaminu E v Ratsioni Husok. Dysertatsiia kand. nauk, Instytut bi-olohii tvaryn NAAN (in Ukrainian).

Kuziak, H. M., & Yanovych, V. H. (2001). Vikovi zminy aminokyslotnoho skladu bilkiv skeletnykh mʼiaziv i shkiry kurei yaiechnykh linii. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten instytutu biolohii tvaryn, 1‒2, 225‒330 (in Ukrainian).

Kyryliv, B. Ya., Hunchak, A. V., Sirko, Ya. M., Andreieva, L. V., Kystsiv, V. O., & Pasichna, Yu. Ya. (2009). Vplyv kormovoi dobavky, zbahachenoi roslynnymy zhyramy, na lipidnyi sklad tkanyn ta antyoksydant-nyi status kurei‒nesuchok Naukovyi visnyk LNUVMBT imeni S. Z. Gzhytskoho, 11(41(2)), 128‒133 (in Ukrainian).

Kyryliv, B., Karpa, I., Stojanowska, H., & Ratytsch, I. (2002). Gersten und Bohnen in der Legehennen-fütterung. Symposium “Österreichisch‒Ukrainische Landwirtschaft”, 26‒29 August, BAL Gumpenstein, 92‒93.

Kystsiv, V. O., Lisna, B. B., Sirko, Ya. M., & Martyniuk, U. A. (2016). Lipidnyi sklad tkanyn yaponskykh perepeliv za umov zghodovuvannia dobavky Bi-lo‒Aktiv. Biolohiia tvaryn, 18(4), 154‒154 (in Ukrain-ian).

Кryvenko, M. J., Ilchuk, I. I., & Mykhalska, V. M. (2017). Optimal in‒feed threonine and tryptophan ratio for replacement chickens: the theoretical background. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 7(3), 111–115. doi: 10.15421/2017_57.

Lemesheva, M. M. (2013). Hodivlia silskohospodarskoi ptytsi. “Slobozhanshchyna”: Sumy (in Ukrainian).

Lemesheva, M. M., & Jurchenko, M. M. (2015). Jeffek-tivnost' ispol'zovanija mikrojelementov v kormlenii pticy. Kormy і fakty,10(62), 10–11 (in Russian).

Lemme, A., Frakenpohl, U., Petri, A., & Meyer, H. (2004). Effect of reduced dietary protein concentrations with amino acid supplementation on performance and carcass quality in turkey toms 14 to 140 days of age. International Journal Poultry Science, 3(6), 391–399. doi: 10.3923/ijps.2004.391.399.

Lisna, B. B. (2004). Vplyv skladu ratsionu dlia plemin-nykh kurei‒nesuchok na produktyvnist ta pokaznyky bilkovoho obminu u tkanynakh. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten IBT UAAN , 5(1‒2), 20‒25 (in Ukrainian).

Liu, N., Ru, Y., Cowieson, A., Li, F., & Cheng, X. C. (2008). Effects of phytate and phytase on the per-formance and immune function of broilers fed. Ani-mal Sciences Maringa, 39(2), 157‒162. doi: 10.3382/ps.2007-00517.

Liu, Y., Yuan, J. M., Zhang, L. S., Zhang, Y. R., Cai, S. M., Yu, J. H., & Xia, Z. F. (2015). Effects of tryptophan supplementation on growth performance, antioxida-tive activity, and meat quality of ducks under high stocking density, Poult. Sci., 94(8), 1894–1901. doi: 10.3382/ps/pev155.

Liu, N., Ru, Y., Li, F., & Cowieson, A. (2008). Effect of diet containing phytate and phytase on the activity and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of carbo-hydrase and transporter in chickens. Journal Animal Science, 86(12), 3432‒3439. doi: 10.2527/jas.2008-1234.

Lopez, G., & Leeson, S. (2008). Assessment of the nitrogen correction factor in evaluating metabolizable energy of corn and soybean meal in diets for broilers. Poultry Science, 87(2), 298–306. doi: 10.3382/ps.2007-00276.

Marchenkov, F. (2012). Nesumisni dobavky – nezasvoienyi korm. Nashe ptakhivnytstvo, 2, 42–43 (in Ukrainian).

Matos, M. S., Leandro, N. S., Stringhini, J. H., Café, M. B., Carvalho, F. B., & Gomes, N. A. (2009). Níveis de lisina e treonina digestíveis para poedeiras comerciais Lohmann LSL de 24 a 44 semanas de idade. Acta Scienceentiarum. Animal Sci., 31(1), 19‒24. doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i1.1387.

Mejia, L., Zumwalt, C., Kim, E., Tillman, P., & Corzo, A. (2011). Digestible isoleucine‒to‒lysine ratio effects in diets for broilers from 4 to 6 weeks posthatch. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 20(4), 485‒490. doi: 10.3382/japr.2010-00273.

Nishchemenko, M. P., Poroshynska, O. A., Samorai, M. M., & Stovbetska, L. S. (2014). Zalezhnist peretravnosti pozhyvnykh rechovyn vid aktyvnosti travnykh fermentiv za zghodovuvannia kompleksu nezaminnykh aminokyslot. Naukovyi visnyk vet-erynarnoi medytsyny, 13, 169‒172. URL: UJRN/nvvm_2014_13_49 (in Ukrainian).

Obertiukh, Yu. V. (2012). Antypozhyvni rechovyny soi, yikh inaktyvatsiia ta tekhnolohii pererobky soievykh bobiv na promyslovii osnovi y v umovakh hospo-darstva. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo, 71, 62‒71 (in Ukrainian).

Obertiukh, Yu. V., & Kulyk, M. F. (2002). Osnovni sposoby zneshkodzhennia antypozhyvnykh rechovyn zerna soi. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo, 49, 148‒155 (in Ukrainian).

Oliveira, D. D., Baião, N. C., Cançado, S. V., Figueire-do, T. C., Lara, L. J., & Lana, A. M. (2010). Fontes de lipídios na dieta de poedeiras: desempenho produtivo e qualidade dos ovos. Arquivos Brasileiros de Medici-na Veterinária e Zootecnia, 62(3), 718‒724. doi: 10.1590/S0102-09352010000300029.

Ovsiienko, A. I., Khimich, O. V., & Ovsiienko, S. M. (2010). Biolohichne zneshkodzhennia antypozhyv-nykh rechovyn v zer-ni soi, bobakh kormovykh ta yikh produktyvna i fiziolohichna diia na orhanizm di-inykh koriv. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo, 66, 294‒303 (in Ukrainian).

Panko, V. V., Nikolienko, N. K., & Stryhun, T. (2013). Vdoskonalennia tekhnolohii vyhotovlennia kombi-kormiv dlia kurei nesuchok v umovakh kombikor-movoho tsekhu. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats VNAU. Hodivlia tvaryn ta tekhnolohiia kormiv, 1(71), 45‒51 (in Ukrainian).

Pavlichenko, S. V., & Holubiev, M. I. (2011). Pokaznyky zaboiu kacheniat zalezhno vid rivnia metioninu ta sirky v kombikormakh. Suchasne ptakhivnytstvo, 11‒12, 20‒22 (in Ukrainian).

Pivtorak, A. Ya., & Kyryliv, Ya. I. (2000). Fiziolohichni osoblyvosti formuvannia i funktsionuvannia pidshlunko-voi zalozy kurchat-broileriv. Naukovyi visnyk LDAVM imeni S. Z. Gzhytskoho, 2(2), 220‒224 (in Ukrainian).

Podobed, L. I., Vovkotrub, Ju. N., & Borovik, V. V. (2006). Proteinovoe i aminokislotinoe pitanie sel'sko-hozjajstvennoj pticy: struktura, istochniki, optimizaci-ja; Pechatnyj dom: Odessa (in Russian).

Podobied, L. (2015). Bezkaltsiievi fosfaty. Nashe pta-khivnytstvo, 6(42), 72–74 (in Ukrainian).

Ramalho, H. M., Dias da Silva, K. H., & Alves dos San-tos, V. V. (2008). Effect of retinyl palmitate supple-mentation on egg yolk retinol and cholesterol concen-trations in quail. British Poultry Science, 49(4), 475‒481. doi: 10.1080/00071660802251723.

Ratych, I. B. (1999). Biolohichna rol sirky i metabolizm sulfatu u ptytsi. Lviv (in Ukrainian).

Ratych, I. B., & Lisna, B. B. (2004). Vplyv yakosti pro-teinu kormu dlia pleminnykh kurei-nesuchok na pokaznyky bilkovoho obminu u tkanynakh embrio-niv ta dobovykh kurchat. NTB Istytutu biolohii tvaryn, 5(3), 129‒133 (in Ukrainian).

Ratych, I. B., Hunchak, A. V., Stoianovska, H. M., An-dreieva, L. V., Kyryliv, B. Ya., & Sirko, Ya. M. (2007). Fizioloho-biokhimichni osnovy zhyvlennia ptytsi. Lviv (in Ukrainian).

Ratych, I. B., Kyryliv, Ya. I., Stoianovska, H. M., & Karpa, I. V. (2005). Netradytsiini roslynni kormy u zhyvlenni ptytsi; Lviv (in Ukrainian).

Ratych, I., Kovalchuk, O., & Vorotsianka, B. (2003). Efektyvnist vykorystannia netradytsiinykh zerno-vykh kormiv u ratsionakh pleminnykh kurei. Cherniv-tsi, 18‒19 (in Ukrainian).

Riabinina, O. V., Ivko, I. I., Hunchak, A. V., & Kyshko, V. I. (2011). Intensyvni tekhnolohii vyroshchuvannia i vidhodivli huseniat dlia otrymannia produktsii, zba-hachenoi biolohichno aktyvnymy rechovynamy. Efektyvne ptakhivnytstvo, 11, 32‒35 (in Ukrainian).

Rocha, T. C., Gomez, P. C., Donzele, J. L., Barreto, S. L., Mello, H. H., & Brumano, G. (2009). Níveis de lisina digestível em rações para poedeiras no período de 24 a 40 semanas de idade. Revista Brasileira de Zoo-tecnia, 38(9), 1726‒1731. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982009000900012.

Sacranie, A., Svihus, B., Denstadli, V., Moen, B., Iji, P., & Choct, M. (2012). The effect of insoluble fiber and in-termittent feeding on gizzard development, gut motili-ty, and performance of broiler chickens. Poultry Sci-ence, 91(3), 693‒700. doi: 10.3382/ps.2011-01790.

Selle, P. H., Cowieson, A. J., & Ravindran, V. (2009). Consequences of calcium interactions with phytate and phytase for Poultry and pigs. Livestock Science, 124(1-3), 126‒141. doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2009.01.006.

Selle, P. H., Cowieson, A. J., Cowieson, N. P., & Ravin-dran, V. (2012). Protein‒phytate interactions in pig and Poultry nutrition: a reappraisal. Nutrition Re-search Review, 25(1), 1‒17. doi: 10.1017/S0954422411000151.

Sharon, N. (2007). Lectins: Carbohydrate-specific Rea-gents and Biological Recognition Molecules. J. Biol. Chem., 282, 2753‒2764.

Shimada, T., Saitoh, T., Sasaki, E., Nishitani, Y., & Osa-wa, R. (2006). Role of tannin‒binding salivary pro-teins and tannase‒producing bacteria in the acclima-tion of the Japanese wood mouse to acorn tannins. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 32, 1165‒1180. doi: 10.1007/s10886-006-9078-z.

Sknar, S. (2012). Treonin dlia kachok. Nashe ptakhivny-tstvo, 5, 73–75 (in Ukrainian).

Skopichev, V. G., Jejsymont, T. A., & Alekseev, N. P. (2003). Fiziologija zhivotnyh i jetologija. M.: Kolos (in Russian).

Sterling, K. G., Vedenov, D. V., Pesti, G. M., & Bakalli, R. I. (2005). Economically optimal dietary crude pro-tein and lysine levels for starting broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 84(1), 29–36. doi: 10.1093/ps/84.1.29.

Svihus, B. (2014). Function of the digestive system. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 23(2), 306–314. doi: 10.3382/japr.2014-00937.

Svihus, B., & Hetland, H. (2001). Ileal starch digestibility in growing broiler chickens fed on a wheat‒based diet is improved by mash feeding, dilution with cellulose or whole wheat inclusion. Br. Poultry Science, 42, 633‒637. doi: 10.1080/00071660120088461.

Svihus, B., Choct, M., & Classen, H. L. (2013). Function and nutritional roles of the avian caeca: A review. World’s Poultry Science J., 69, 249‒263. doi: 10.1017/S0043933913000287.

Svihus, B., Kløvstad, K., Perez, V., Zimonja, O., Sahl-ström, S., Schüller, R., & Jeksrud, W. (2004). Physical and nutritional effects of pelleting of broiler chicken diets made from wheat ground to different coarse-nesses by the use of roller mill and hammer mill. Anim. Feed Science. Technol., 117(3-4), 281‒293. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.08.009.

Sychov, M. (2014). Aminokysloty i nesuchist. Nashe ptakhivnytstvo, 6(36), 62–64 (in Ukrainian).

Sychov, M. (2015). Dzherela metioninu. Nashe pta-khivnytstvo, 4(40), 60–63 (in Ukrainian).

Sychov, M. Yu. (2010). Yaiechna produktyvnist perepeliv za riznykh rivniv syroho zhyru v kombikormakh. Suchasne ptakhivnytstvo, 3‒4, 35‒37 (in Ukrainian).

Timofeeva, Je. (2012). Mikrojelementy v kormlenii kur-nesushek. Pticevodstvo, 1, 25‒28 (in Russian).

Tufarelli, V., Ragni, М., & Vito, L. (2018). Feeding Forage in Poultry: A Promising Alternative for the Future of Production Systems Agriculture. World’s Poultry Sci-ence J., 8(6), 81. doi: 10.3390/agriculture8060081.

Urdzik, R. M. (2008). Lipidnoe pitanie pticy. Efektyvne ptakhivnytstvo, 12, 33‒37 (in Russian).

Urdzik, R. M. (2013). Osobennosti kormlenija pticy v fermerskih hozjajstvah. Efektyvne ptakhivnytstvo, 2, 22–25 (in Russian).

Usatiuk, S., Koroliuk, T., & Lutsenko, O. (2010). Vmist zhyrorozchynnykh vitaminiv u perepelynykh yait-siakh ta produktakh yikh pererobky. Kharchova i pererobna promyslovist, 2, 22‒23 (in Ukrainian).

Valizadeh, M. R., Sadeghi, A. A., Chamani, M., Shawrang, P., & Feizi, F. (2014). The Effect of increas-ing dietary threonine to lysine ratio on carcass charac-teristics, mucin gene expression and morphological analysis of ileum of male broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella. International Journal of BioSciences, 5(11), 138‒146. URL:

Vieira, S. L., & Angel, C. R. (2012). Optimizing broiler performance using different amino acid density diets: What are the limits? The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 21(1), 149‒155. doi: 10.3382/japr.2011-00476.

Wecke, C., & Liebert, F. (2013). Improving the Reliability of Optimal In–Feed Amino Acid Ratios Based on In-dividual Amino Acid Efficiency Data from N Balance Studies in Growing Chicken. Animals (Basel), 3(3), 558–573. doi: 10.3390/ani3030558.

Zheinova, N. (2016). Hodivlia yak ahent vplyvu. Nashe ptakhivnytstvo, 2(44), 56–57 (in Ukrainian).

Abstract views: 111
PDF Downloads: 52
How to Cite
Kyryliv, B., Hunchak, A., Ratych, I., & Gutyj, B. (2021). Influence of alimentary factors on the absorption of feed nutrients and poultry productivity. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Agricultural Sciences, 23(95), 3-14.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 > >>