Quality control of butter
The most common problem among ready-made foods is the adulteration of butter, which is replaced by margarine or vegetable spreads. Milk and other dairy products made from raw milk are not left out. The production and sale of low-quality, counterfeit products poses a direct threat to human health and affects the competitive environment among producers. As a result of research, it should be noted that the raw milk market is not fully saturated, so improving the quality of cream production and processing of milk products, namely butter, competition for suppliers, microbiological improvements, as well as improvements to plants and systems – remains relevant. During the analysis, some physicochemical parameters of butter were studied, namely: acidity of the fat phase, mass fraction of moisture and fat. The acidity index was within the norm, although it differed in all samples: the lowest was found in sample № 1 (1.1 °K), and the highest was in sample № 2 (1.6 °K). As for such an indicator as the content of table salt and the content of fat and pH of plasma, the oils Sweet cream “Selyanske”, 72,6 % TM “Svoya Liniya”, Sweet cream, 73.0 % LLC “Eney”, “Poltavske”, 62.5 % LLC “Techmolprom” do not meet the requirements of DSTU 4399:2005. The mass fraction of fat in butter brands PJSC “Dubnomoloko” and “Pryvat-Fud” – was lower than indicated on the package, by 1.4 % and 2.6 %, respectively, and brands “Svoya Liniya”, LLC “Eney” and Techmolprom LLC on the contrary – by 18.0 %, 18.4 % and 12.5 % more. According to the results of microbiological studies, it was found that the number of mesophilic aerobic and facultatively anaerobic microorganisms, yeasts, fungi and bacteria of the Escherichia coli group in the studied samples of butter of all brands does not exceed the permissible norms. This fact testifies to the relative “purity” of the raw material from which the butter was made, as well as to the observance of veterinary and sanitary and hygienic norms during the production and storage of butter. Summing up the research, it should be noted that, despite the identified physical and chemical shortcomings of all samples of butter, preference should be given to sour cream butter “Selyanske”, 73.0 % of PJSC “Dubnomoloko” and “Selyanske” sweet cream, 73.0 % “Privat- Fud”, as none of them exceeded such indicators as fat content and plasma pH of oil, which may indicate the absence of impurities in vegetable fats in this product.
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