Exterior features and morphometric parameters of the bees’ wing of different breeding crosses of the Carpathian breed
Honey bees are essential insects due to their ecological and economic value, as they are used not only to obtain valuable products (honey, pollen, Perga, etc.) but also to pollinate plants and increase yields. The Carpathian breed occupies a prominent place in the diversity of bees’ further intensification, which depends on the efficiency of selection and breeding work on improvement of existent and creation of new types and lines between which genetic material can be exchanged. New breeding populations must be comprehensively evaluated for economically valuable traits, including the exterior, and the best ones must be identified. Given the stated, the purpose of our research was to study the external features and morphometric parameters of the wings of bees of different breeding crosses of the Carpathian breed. Studies have been conducted on bees of various genealogical formations of the Carpathian breeds in private apiaries in the Navariya village, Lviv region. 6 groups of 10 bee colonies in each were formed to conduct experimental studies: I – the control group – local bees of the Carpathian population (type “Vuchkivskyi”); ІІ – the experimental group – inbred group ♀ micro population “915” x ♂ micro population “915”; III – the experimental group – selection cross ♀ line “Sto” x ♂ micro population “915”; IV – the experimental group – selection cross ♀ Vuchkivskyix ♂ micro population “915”; V – research group – selection cross ♀ line “Troisek 07” x ♂ micro population “915”; VI – research group – breeding cross ♀ micro population G. Macha x ♂ micro population “915”. It is established that bees of different selection crosses of the Carpathian breed significantly differed in exterior features and morphometric parameters of wings, while the difference between the studied features ranged from insignificantly unreliable to significant reliable data. The fifth group was characterized by the most extended proboscis (6.72 mm) and the highest value of the cubital index (2.75 %), and – the sixth group by the most extensive length of the front wing (9.38 mm). The bees of the third group were characterized by the highest value of front wing width (3.33 mm), wax mirror length (1.43 mm), a sum of lengths of third and fourth tergites (4.54 mm), and dumbbell index (1.11 %), and the fourth group – by the most significant number of hooks on the rear wing (21.80 pcs.), the highest value of the tarsal index (53.51 %) and discoidal displacement (4.79 %). The insects of the first and the third group were characterized by the largest width of the wax mirror (2.26 mm). However, it is worth noting that all the studied features of the exterior of bees and morphometric parameters of the wings were within the standard of the Carpathian bees breed.
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