Influence of heterosis on honey productivity of Carpathian bees
Obtaining the maximum number of products depends on the effectiveness of selection and breeding work on the improvement of existing and creation of new types and lines, as well as on the rational use of the gene pool of bees in regional breeding systems hybridization. Using inbred hybrids for this purpose makes it possible, along with increasing productivity, to preserve the purity of the bee breed, which is also extremely important. Along with this, there is no danger of the manifestation of an adverse effect of splitting traits in the offspring of subsequent generations, which is often observed when using interbreed crosses. Therefore, the purpose of the work was to study the laws and mechanisms of heterosis for breeding honey bees and obtaining the maximum amount of products. Breeding of queens that gave hybrid offspring of different origins was carried out in the conditions of the Carpathian zone of Transcarpathia in the apiaries of the Carpathian bee selection and reproduction department of the National Research Center “Institute of Beekeeping named after P. I. Prokopovich”. Based on experimental studies, a comprehensive assessment of combinations of honey bees was carried out using the example of the “Vuchkiv” and “Kolochav” types and their initial forms under different climatic conditions. Morphological, biological features and quantitative characteristics of honey productivity intertype hybrids of Carpathian bees were studied. The theoretical value of the work lies in the fact that the breeding of interbreeding types based on the developed methodology and the introduction of effective breeding technology for bee families ensures the preservation and reproduction of the Carpathian bee population. The phenomenon of heterosis was investigated as a result of crossing different types of Carpathian bees based on a comparative evaluation of the “Vuchkiv” and “Kolochav” types. At the same time, the data on their use, value, and natural resistance in different climatic conditions have been expanded. At the same time, the offspring, relative to the parents, differ in increased honey productivity by 40.1–45.2 %. The production of queens, intertype purebred Carpathian bees is a significant reserve for increasing the productivity of apiaries, primarily in the area of their purebred breeding and, unlike interbreed hybrids, does not pose a threat to crossbreeding of the breed.
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