Foreign experience of agricultural insurance and prospects of its adaptation in Ukraine
In the articles of the considered process of agrarian insurance in foreign countries. The essence of the concept of “agricultural insurance” and “agricultural insurance risk" is revealed. The history of development of agricultural insurance in the international market of insurance services is studied. There are several well-known national agricultural insurance systems and their characteristics. The national systems and participants of agrarian insurance in the countries of the world, namely: the United States of America, Canada, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria, France, Germany, Latvia and Poland are singled out. It is proved that in most countries of the world the importance of insurance of risks of agricultural production as an irreplaceable financial and economic lever of development of agriculture and economy of the countries is described. The most important measures that are provided and mandatory for the participants of the above-mentioned foreign national agricultural insurance systems are highlighted. Models of agricultural insurance in different countries are characterized by certain features: the state is an active participant in the agricultural insurance system; insurance is overwhelmingly voluntary; state policy in the field of insurance is characterized by structure and transparency; the state subsidizes both agricultural producers and insurance companies; Appropriate state institutions and appropriate levers of financial influence are created for the development and implementation of state policy in the field of agricultural insurance. Based on the experience of foreign countries, three main operating systems of agricultural insurance protection have been identified: the system of catastrophic coverage, the system of state administration of agricultural insurance programs, the system of cooperation between the state and insurance companies. It is noted that there is also an inefficient system of “state insurance company”, which sells agricultural insurance services. The main normative acts regulating the insurance process in Ukraine are described. It was proposed to introduce a new program of state support for agricultural insurance, which would clearly define: the subjects of the market of insurance of agricultural products with state support, insurance contracts, insurance rules, the mechanism for providing state support to farmers; information support of state support of agricultural insurance.
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