Investigation of the change of energy source at hack food raw materials from the angle of sharpening the wedge
The article substantiates the necessity of carrying out a complex of theoretical and experimental researches on energy and resource conservation in technological processes of processing of food products aimed at increasing the efficiency of grinding. It should be noted that the ways of improving the efficiency of technology of processing of food products studied to date is clearly not enough. Mechanical properties in the most general form are determined by deformations occurring under the influence of force. Deformation of polymers in general and of tissues of meat and food products in particular as biopolymers is presented as a sum of three components: elastic deformation – inverse in the phase with stress, residual – completely irreversible and highly elastic – inverse, but not in phase with stress. Elastic deformation is associated with changes in intermolecular distances, residual – with irreversible displacements of molecules at distances larger than molecular sizes, and highly elastic associated with changes in the conformation of polymer chains. In the work, the rheological model of food products, as elastic-solid bodies, is presented as a conglomerate consisting of a solid (elastic) skeleton and a liquid substance that fills the gaps between solids. Being deformed, solid elements of the skeleton of food products crush on the liquid environment surrounding them, forcing them to move in less stressed zones. In accordance with the laws of hydrodynamics, the resistance of the medium at such displacement depends on the speed of its displacement. The problems of calculating the efforts of cutting raw materials from the depth of the wedge rotation with different angles of exacerbation for the food industry, in particular meat, have been investigated. Experimental studies have been conducted to verify the theoretically derived dependence. Cutting efforts coincide well with experimental data and can be used for practical use. In the article, in order to investigate the process of cutting raw materials intended for food production, a mathematical model of physically grounded combinations of elements for describing the mechanical properties of food products was used, which with sufficiently reflect the fundamental properties of the material: elasticity, viscosity and plasticity. The equation for calculating the cutting effort from the angle of sharpening the wedge and test its adequacy experimentally was proven. Applied methods of physically based combinations of elements for mathematical description of mechanical properties of food products, which with sufficient accuracy reflect the fundamental properties of the material: elasticity, viscosity and plasticity. In this combination, the advantage is given to those properties that have a significant value. For food products, such properties are: elasticity and viscosity. A consistent and parallel connection of these elements allows you to simulate the deformation of materials with very complex properties. It is advisable to use the mathematical model of food behavior in subsequent studies, as well as to take into account the energy costs of grinding using chopping.
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