The content of heavy metals in pressed and dry baker`s yeast
The use of yeast is commonly used in the food industry since the ancient times. The scientific and technological progress contributed to the transition of manufacturing to a new stage and ensured a high level of quality and safety of the final products. However, despite the automation and thorough control of the industrial yeast growth, most of the metals released from industrial activity inhibit the productivity of cultures and affect microbial metabolism. That is why there is a need to study the processes of bioaccumulation of pollutants in the heavy metal transfer chain «anthropogenic pollution – soil – beetroot – molasses – yeast – final product». The purpose of this work is to determine the content of heavy metal salts in pressed yeast of different producers. The article contains data on the content of heavy metals in pressed and dry baker's yeast of various manufacturers. Two samples of pressed and four samples of dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were selected in order to estimate the concentration of heavy metal salts in them and compare those findings with the documented norms (DSTU 4812: 2007). The concentration of Plumbum, Cadmium, Kuprum, Zinc and Arsenic salts was assessed through the atomic absorption spectrometry with atomization in flame. The method of atomic absorption spectrometry (cold vapor) was used to analyze the presence of Mercury in yeast. The results obtained in the toxicological study of compressed yeast exceeded the norms only by two parameters: the concentration of Plumbum salts exceeded the norm by 2 times, and the salts of Cadmium by 1.5 times. The simultaneous study of dry yeast showed that the concentration of salts of Cadmium, Plumbum, and Zinc exceeded the standards indicated in DSTU 4812:2007 by several times, while the concentration of Mercury, Arsenic and Kuprum salts were within the norm. However, this document is not normative for this category of food. The concentration of the studied heavy metal salts varies widely. In our opinion, the disparity in dencity in different samples is cospite to the fact that molasses used in the production of yeast were obtained from different biogeochemical regions. Accordingly, samples in which the indicators had the lowest results were grown on more ecological molasses. Our studies have shown that not all experimental specimens are safe for long-term using. The prospect of further research is to study the quality and safety of food products made from yeast of various regions.
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