Investigation of membrane process for the lactose extract from buttermilk con-centrates
Improving dairy production technologies, including ice cream, from the secondary raw materials through the introduction of innovative technologies allows you to save energy and resources. Buttermilk as a secondary material resource has valuable properties. They are due to the content of proteins, phospholipids, vitamin F, and others. Application of a butter-milk as a basis for lactose and low-calcined products, including ice cream is restrained by the content of lactose at the milk level. Among the known methods for the removal of lactose are widely used enzymes, membranes and their combination. The presented work is aimed at studying the main dependencies of the membrane treatment of the buttermilk by ultra- and diaphiltration with nano-filtration permeate obtained by appropriate treatment of the oil filtration fluid permeate. In experiments, hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UV) membranes VPU-15 and nano-filtration (NF) flat membranes OPMN-P produced by «Владипор» (Russia) were used. Both types of membranes were used as part of laboratory membrane installations. The study used standard methods for determining the components of the buttermilk and its products UV and NF. For each membrane, filtrate performance and selectivity were determined depending on the operating parameters of UV permeate nanofiltration and diaphiltration (DF). UV retentate of the buttermilk on hollow fibers at a pressure of 0.15 MPa and a temperature of 50 °C. was obtained at a concentration factor F = 4. The low selectivity of the VPU-15 membrane for lactose (4%) and high protein (99.6%) have been established. The nanofiltration of UV buttermilk permeate was carried out at a pressure range of 0.5 ... 2.0 MPa. From 0.5 to 1.5 MPa linear dependence of specific productivity on pressure at temperature 20 ... 22 °С is established. At concentration factor F = 4 in the retentate of nanofiltration 17.9% of lactose was observed, and in NF permeate 0.05% with the same concentration of salts of 0.7%. With continuous diafiltration of the UV retentate of the buttermilk, an increase in the membrane's productivity was observed with increasing temperature to 8.2 ... 10 l/m2 · h. The lowest concentration of lactose (0.01%) in the UV retentate was observed with the use of a sevenfold volume of NF permeate as a solvent. The effect of lactose removal was 99.8%. The results of the studies have shown that the combination of ultrafiltration and continuous diafiltration with NF permeate gives the desired result of the removal of lactose from the buttermilk concentrate. The best parameters of the research process were a pressure of 1.5 MPa and a temperature of 50 °C. The obtained data can become the basis for obtaining mathematical dependencies for an estimation of an effective membrane method. Further research will be needed because of the problem of membrane contamination and their regeneration and disinfection.
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