Use of repeated pasteurization for the production of boiled sausage products
The issue of food safety is perhaps one of those that receive a lot of attention in present conditions. Maintaining the freshness and quality of the product during its preservation and satisfying the consumer's requirements is the main producers and retailers’ goal. Boiled sausages, frankfurters, bangers are a very common and popular consumer product group. But at the same time, these products have a relatively short storage term, which is very uncomfortable in terms of the branched logistics chain, to which most meat producers have become accustomed. There are ways to extend the storage period of this product, namely: through the use of gas and steam-proof membranes, preserving agents, packaging of products in multi-layer polymer materials, etc. However, in order to achieve stable results in the production, storage and marketing of products, it is necessary to control a number of factors such as: hygiene, temperature, pH, water activity (aw), influence of oxygen and etc., as they affect the consumer characteristics of the product and, in the absence of control – contribute to its deterioration. An essential type of deterioration is microbiological, which is caused by the action of microorganisms: bacteria, mold, yeast, viruses, etc. It is known that most microorganisms develop on the surface of the product, especially if it concerns the natural casings used for the manufacture of sausage products. Some scientists worked on developments related to the inhibitory properties of plant extracts, the effect of chitosan, etc., which were used to cover polymer films, giving them antimicrobial properties. However, the drawback of using polymer films with aseptic properties is a limitation to their use in industrial environments. Considering that the extension of the storage term of boiled sausage products is a key issue, in order to obtain a stable and predictable result, it was suggested to combine the use of multilayer polymeric materials intended for the packaging of meat products, followed by short-term temperature treatment (pasteurization) of finished, vacuum packed, sausage products, which makes it possible to suppress the growth of microorganisms present on the surface of the product after the primary heat treatment. In the course of the research, the sausages of the highest and the first grade were made and vacuum packed in multi-layer polymer materials (films), followed by short-term pasteurization. Control samples were similar in composition sausage products, which were made according to the requirements of the technical specifications and vacuum packed, but which were not subjected to additional heat treatment (pasteurization). During the storage period, organoleptic, microbiological, physical-chemical studies were carried out, measured: water activity, moisture binding capacity, moisture retaining ability, amino acid composition of the product, structural and mechanical parameters. According to the results of research, a positive result about the possibility of storing pasteurized sausages of both the highest and first grade showed up to 75 days, while similar products without repeated heat treatment did not meet the requirements of normative-technical documentation as soon as on 35-th day of storage. As a result of the performed work, recommendations were made to increase the storage time of pasteurized cooked sausages up to 60 days, taking into account the stock factor, using a complex of measures with the use of repeated heat treatment (pasteurization), which contribute to obtaining a high-quality and stable on the safety parameters of a product with a long storage term without the use of preservatives of chemical origin.
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