Monitoring the content of nitrates in milk
Milk safety is an important criterion for assessing the quality of milk. Cow's milk makes up the basis of the diet for the most people. Especially this product is indispensable for children's nutrition. One of the important tasks of the dairy industry is the quality control of milk by the content of nitrates. The mechanism of action of nitrates on the human body and their toxic effects on children was analyzed. The objective and task of the scientific paper is to determine the content of nitrates in the raw milk, which comes to the processing enterprises from the private subsidiary farming and dairy farms and in drinking milk, which is sold in the trade network at different times of the year. On the basis of the obtained data, the relevance of the search for denitrification of milk with an excess of the nitrates content was proved. The content of nitrates was determined by the colorimetric method with the use of a cadmium column, followed by the photometric determination of azo compounds, formed by the interaction of nitrites with aromatic amines. It was found that milk enters milk processing plants with different amounts of nitrates. It was determined that 69.8% of milk samples from the private subsidiary farming received in the winter-spring period and 92.2% of milk samples from the summer-autumn period corresponded to the norms of the Ukrainian standard (up to 10 mg/kg of nitrates), while the European standards (up to 5 mg/kg of nitrate) corresponded to 10.5% and 56.3% of milk samples, respectively (difference of 45.8%). It was established that 79.3% of samples of milk coming from the dairy farms in the winter-spring period and 40% milk samples coming from the summer-autumn period corresponded to the norms of the Ukrainian standard.7.7% and 67.6% milk samples of winter-spring and summer-autumn periods were corresponded to the norms of European standards, respectively (difference 59.9%). The problem of receipt of processing of a considerable quantity of milk, which according to the content of nitrates is not subject to the acceptance, was revealed. The expediency of finding ways of denitrification of milk for possible further use in the processing industry was substantiated. One of such methods is the use of the special starter cultures of microorganisms – active denitrification agents. It is important to reduce the nitrate content to the European standard in the final product; it will improve the quality of milk, its safety.
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