Influence of temperature on the fermentation of high gravity wort
Significant increase in the cost of energy contributed to the development of modern energy-saving technologies. For the production of beer, a large amount of energy and heat carriers are consumed at the stage of wort preparation and cooling agents at the fermentation stage. In the context of the energy crisis and the high competition among manufacturers, there is a need to introduce new, energy-saving technologies, in particular, high gravity brewing. The potential benefits of high-gravity brewing over traditional technology include significant water savings, higher alcohol yields and lower energy, labor costs and lower capital costs. However, the benefits of high gravity brewing become evident when the fermentation time remains moderate, and the viability of the yeast and the taste of beer are adequate. This depends on the parameters of the main fermentation process including temperature. The effect of the main fermentation temperature of 9, 12, 15 and 18 °С on the fermentation of high gravity wort at a concentration of 16% w/w and physiological properties of yeast strain W-34/70 was investigated in this work. The duration of fermentation was 9 days. It has been established that at a traditional fermentation temperature of 9 °C fermentation process is slow and stops prematurely. Fermentation at 18 °C allows achieving of high fermentation rate. However, the physiological properties of yeast deteriorate, in particular, the content of cells with glycogen decreases and the flocculation properties of yeast deteriorate. The fermentation temperature practically did not affect the content of non-viable yeast cells. However, their number was slightly higher than the value observed in breweries due to the influence of osmotic and ethanol stress. The optimum temperature of the main fermentation should be within 12–15 °С. For these values of temperature high fermentation activity of yeast and high fermentation were achieved, good physiological properties of yeast were maintained, and the content of vicinal diketones did not exceeded the threshold in young beer.
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