Influence of temperature on the fermentation of high gravity wort

Keywords: high-gravity brewing, temperature, fermentation rate, vicinal diketones, physiological properties of yeast


Significant increase in the cost of energy contributed to the development of modern energy-saving technologies. For the production of beer, a large amount of energy and heat carriers are consumed at the stage of wort preparation and cooling agents at the fermentation stage. In the context of the energy crisis and the high competition among manufacturers, there is a need to introduce new, energy-saving technologies, in particular, high gravity brewing. The potential benefits of high-gravity brewing over traditional technology include significant water savings, higher alcohol yields and lower energy, labor costs and lower capital costs. However, the benefits of high gravity brewing become evident when the fermentation time remains moderate, and the viability of the yeast and the taste of beer are adequate. This depends on the parameters of the main fermentation process including temperature. The effect of the main fermentation temperature of 9, 12, 15 and 18 °С on the fermentation of high gravity wort at a concentration of 16% w/w and physiological properties of yeast strain W-34/70 was investigated in this work. The duration of fermentation was 9 days. It has been established that at a traditional fermentation temperature of 9 °C fermentation process is slow and stops prematurely. Fermentation at 18 °C allows achieving of high fermentation rate. However, the physiological properties of yeast deteriorate, in particular, the content of cells with glycogen decreases and the flocculation properties of yeast deteriorate. The fermentation temperature practically did not affect the content of non-viable yeast cells. However, their number was slightly higher than the value observed in breweries due to the influence of osmotic and ethanol stress. The optimum temperature of the main fermentation should be within 12–15 °С. For these values of temperature high fermentation activity of yeast and high fermentation were achieved, good physiological properties of yeast were maintained, and the content of vicinal diketones did not exceeded the threshold in young beer.


Bevz, V.V. (2010). Enerhozberezhennia – efektyvnyi shliakh do znyzhennia vytrat vyrobnytstva. Kharchova promyslovist. 9, 190–194 (in Ukrainian).

Silva, D., Branyik, T., Dragone, G., Vicente, А., Teixeira, J., & Almeida e Silva, J. (2008). High gravity batch and continuous processes for beer production: Evaluation of fermentation performance and beer quality. Chemical Papers. 62(1), 34–41. doi: 10.2478/s11696-007-0076-6

Paligundla, P., Smogrovicova, D., Obulam, V., & Ko, S. (2011). Very high gravity ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 38(9), 1133–1144. doi: 10.1007/s10295-011-0999-3.

Kharandiuk, T.V., Kosiv, R.B., Berezovska, N.I., & Palianytsia, L.Ya. (2016). Rasy drizhdzhiv dlia vysokohustynnoho pyvovarinnia. Visnyk KhNU. Seriia tekhnichni nauky. 4, 100–104 (in Ukrainian).

Kharandiuk, T.V., Kosiv, R.B., Berezovska, N.I., & Palianytsia, L.Ya. (2016). Vplyv kontsentratsii drizhdzhovykh klityn na zbrodzhuvannia vysokohustynnoho pyvnoho susla. Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu veterynarnoi medytsyny ta biotekhnolohii imeni S. Z. Hzhytskoho. 18, 1(65), 133–137 (in Ukrainian).

Kunce, V. (2001). Tehnologija soloda i piva. SPb: Izdatel'stvo PROFESSIJa (in Russian).

Dragone, G., Mussatto, I., & Silva, A. (2008). Influence of temperature on continuous high gravity brewing with yeasts immobilized on spent grains. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 228(2), 257–264. doi: 10.1007/s00217-008-0930-y

Odumeru, J., D'Amore, T., Russell, I., & Stewart, G. (1992). Effects of heat shock and ethanol stress on the viability of a Saccharomyces uvarum (carlsbergensis) brewing yeast strain during fermentation of high gravity wort. Journal of Industrial Microbiology. 10(2), 111–116. doi: 10.1007/BF01583843

Almeida, R., Almeida e Silva, J., Lima, U., Silva, D.P., & Assis, A.N. (2001). Evaluation of fermentation parameters during high-gravity beer production. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 18(4), 459-465. doi: 10.1590/S0104-66322001000400010

Pfeninger, H. (2002). Methods collection of the Mitteleuropaschen Brautechnischen Analysen-kommision. Munchen: Technische Universität München.

Abstract views: 0
PDF Downloads: 0
How to Cite
Kharandiuk, T., Kosiv, R., Berezovska, N., & Palianytsia, L. (2018). Influence of temperature on the fermentation of high gravity wort. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Food Technologies, 20(85), 51-55.