Development of recipeurs of meat pieces with the use of protein-fatty emulsions based on vitaminized blended vegetable oils
The article deals with the development of recipes using meat pates and fat emulsions (BJE) based on vitaminized blended vegetable oils. The organoleptic, physico-chemical and functional and technological characteristics of new formulations meat pates were studied in order to enrich bioactive components. In the process, eight recipes with poultry pastes were created using BJE which were part of the formulation of 15 ... 20% and two formulations of fortified vegetable oils with mixed two-component and three-component formulations in an amount of 10%. Control samples were pates made under ISO 4432:205, containing 10% pork bacon. As the main raw material in the formulations, pate chicken and turkey meat (previously blanched), chicken liver (previously blanched), eggs were used. This provides dieteticity of raw product balances by amino acid composition. Also formulation prototypes were such ingredients as carrots, onions and browned, semolina, bread (previously hydrated). Also the changes of the structural and mechanical properties of the finished product when replacing bacon at BJE were studied. A number of microbiological tests have been carried out, namely: the determination of the number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (MAFANM), coliform bacteria (SHGP), sulfite-adenocular clostridia, Staphylococcus aureus, L.monocytogenes and Salmonella. The shelf life of meat pates was doubled (48 hours), whereas according to GOST 4432: 2005 – 24 hours. Quality parameters of meat pates include: organoleptic and structural-mechanical, which were carried out according to well-known methods, in accordance with existing standards. As a result of the organoleptic evaluation of meat baked pates, it was found that partial replacement of animal fats with vitaminized blended vegetable oils or protein-fat emulsion on their basis generally does not reduce the organoleptic characteristics of the rooted products, and in some cases they are even higher than in the control sample. So, in a control sample, the consistency is dense and the grainspeed, the pates of BJE have a homogeneous pleasant elastic maze-like structure, with their vitaminized blended vegetable oil their consistency is soft and greasy. Important indicators of food are functional and technological indicators. The change in the pH of the medium affects not only the organoleptic parameters, but also the intensity of the development of the microflora. The putrefactive microflora is capable of multiplying and developing only at pH of the environment of about 7.0 or higher, and shifting the pH to the acid side causes a change in the surface structures of the cell, which leads to the formation of conditions unfavorable for its development, and sometimes to destruction and death. Therefore, the pH of the medium is an important factor that affects the quality of the products. Also, when assessing the quality of products, plasticity is taken into account – the product's ability to irreversible deformations. In a control sample of meat pate, with the addition of animal fat, and meat pates, with the addition of vitaminized blended vegetable oils, a slightly lower content of bound moisture than in the samples with the addition of BJE. This is due to the fact that the composition of BJE includes animal protein, which directly binds the moisture. Considering that heat-treated raw materials are used in the preparation of paste, in which there are no native proteins, the increase in the mass fraction of unbound moisture will soften the consistency of the product. The pH value in the samples with the addition of BJE compared to the control and with the samples supplemented with vitaminized blended vegetable oils vary slightly. The use of vitaminized blended vegetable oils in BJE provides not only the balance of the product with fatty acid and vitamin composition, but also the improvement of technological indicators – the increase in the yield of the product after heat treatment. The technology of blending of vegetable oils was developed and introduced at the Odessa plant of stone and vegetable oils, OOO AVA, (act from 26.03.2015). Approbation of carrying out on a production area of LLC «Zernoprom», where a trial lot of meat pates is made using protein-fat emulsions created on the basis of vitaminized blended vegetable oils (act from 18.03.2016).
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