Characterization of the bacterial origin immunotropic functional ingredients obtained through a physical impact
It is noted, that the peptidoglycans components of bacteria cell walls, including the lactic acid bacteria, have a highly functional and physiological activity and are very perspective immunotropic food ingredients. It is reasonable the destruction of bacterial cells to obtain biologically active compounds. They can easily assimilate and join biochemical processes thus speeding the expected immunotropic effect. The effect of physical disintegrating factors, namely, ultrasound and microwave, on the efficiency of Lactobacillus acidophilus cell walls destruction was studied in the paper. The efficiency of destruction was determined by the accumulation in the disintegrate of low molecular weight peptides (with molecular weight up to 1500 Da), amino acids and soluble protein. Microwave treatment of the Lactobacillus acidophilus suspension was carried out by microwave radiation in a microwave frequency field of 2.45 GHz with an emission intensity of 40, 60, 80 and 100%. The treatment time was varied in the range 60–300 s. Ultrasound bath PSB-1335-05 with an operating frequency of 15, 25 and 35 kHz was used to process the suspension by ultrasound, the processing time varied in the range of 60 to 900 s. The results of the studies showed that the most significant disintegrate effect on BM Lactobacillus acidophilus when processed by microwave waves occurred with the application of radiation intensity of 80% for 300 s, with sonication – using a frequency of 25 kHz for 900 s. The number of amino acids in the disintegrates is 0.27 and 0.59 mg/cm3, respectively. The number of low molecular weight peptides in disintegrates is insignificant. Thus, it is shown, that more effective method of bacterial cells physical destruction is sonication. The molecular mass distribution of protein compounds and the content of essential amino acids in the disintegrant composition obtained by ultrasound treatment of biomass have been established.
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