The flour of soft wheat in the technologies of food products
The article considers the issue of improving the quality of flour confectionery products through the use of new technologies and different types of raw materials. There is only one type of wheat flour in the retail network of Ukraine, which is characterized as flour with strong or medium gluten. Scientists of NAAS of Ukraine have selectively developed new varieties of soft-grained wheat, which are used to produce extrusion flour. Taking into account the specific properties of extruded flour from soft wheat, it is advisable to explore the possibility of its use in the technology of confectionery and culinary products, in particular, in the production of biscuit flour products and sauces. Analysis of different types of flour and starch was performed on physicochemical and organoleptic parameters. The quality of the finished products was controlled by organoleptic and physicochemical parameters, among which special attention was paid to the indicators of foaming ability, foam stability, moisture and porosity, and in the case of sauces – viscosity. A comparative analysis of wheat flour and soft-grain wheat flour showed that the content of raw gluten in soft-wheat flour is lower by almost 15 %. The hydration capacity of gluten of soft wheat flour is 29 % higher than that of baking flour. The gluten color of soft wheat flour is yellower than the gluten of baking flour, which will affect the color of semi-finished and finished products. It has been determined that for the production of biscuits, it is best to use soft-wheat flour in a mixture with durum flour. According to organoleptic parameters, the highest score was obtained with a sample with a composition of the composite mixture of 60:40, which is also characterized by higher porosity (5 %) compared to the control sample. In samples of sauces with different structurants, their structural and mechanical properties were investigated by determining the dependence of the effective viscosity on the shear rate. It is established that the obtained model systems using structurants based on flour from soft wheat varieties have high structural and mechanical properties without delamination when reheated. The recipe composition and technological process of production of “Nasoloda” and “Béchamel” sauces and a new sponge cake with the use of soft-grade extruded wheat flour have been developed and substantiated. The main indicators of product quality and safety have been studied. The obtained products meet the requirements for organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological safety indicators and can be recommended for use.
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