Application of biotechnological method of fat reduction in fish snack technology
The article deals with the research aimed at developing an enzymatic method for removing the subcutaneous fat in the technology of fish snacks production. Currently, fish snacks are popular among consumers. However, due to fierce market competition, the priority is to develop new raw materials, improve the taste characteristics of snacks and increase the shelf life of finished products. The most common commercial fish species of Ukraine caught in sufficient quantities are Black Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus). The main problem in the production of quality snack products is the high fat content in these raw materials. Oxidation of the subcutaneous layer of fat leads to an unpleasant odor and taste, and as a result – reduction of the shelf life of the product. One possible way to solve these problems is to remove lipids using biotechnology. Experiments how to solve the problem of removing the subcutaneous fat using a biotechnological method of processing are described in this work. The process of the subcutaneous fat removing has been performed using a complex of plant lipolytic enzymes extracted from wheat bran. The change in the mass fraction of fat in fish raw materials depending on the duration of the fermentation process under the action of wheat bran lipase has been studied. Results of the research showed, that the mass fraction of Black Sea sprat fat under the action of a complex of wheat bran enzymes had decreased from 12 to 4.5 %. The optimal temperature of the complex of lipolytic enzymes of wheat bran has been determined. The hydrolysis of fat is almost nonexistent at the temperature range from 0 up to 5 °C. The greatest activity of enzymes is observed at a temperature of 25… 35 °C and within 30 min of hydrolysis 7… 8 % of fat is being removed. The optimal pH value for enzymatic degreasing has been investigated. It has been found that the fastest breakdown of fat occurs at pH values from 7 to 8 and is 7… 8 % of fat in 30 minutes. Based on the research results, a technological scheme for the production of fish snacks has been developed.
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