Main aspects of environmental protection from urban noise
The main sources of noise pollution in modern cities, that generate significant levels of sound pressure, which significantly, sometimes at times exceed permissible noise levels have been identified. The consequences of the negative impact of noise of the urban environment on the human body, fauna and flora are described. The sanitary-hygienic, engineering-technical, architectural-planning, construction-acoustic and economic-social aspects of scientific researches concerning protection of the environment from noise pollution are singled out. The main methods and ways to reduce urban noise are described, among which are: reducing the sound power level of existing equipment and vehicles, or replacing them with less noisy ones, and during design-taking measures to minimize noise emissions from machines; carrying out timely cleaning, adjustment, repair of machines, mechanisms and equipment, restriction or complete prohibition of noisy works and operation of the most intensive noise sources at night; rational orientation of the noise source or place of noise radiation, taking into account the direction indicator; placement of noise sources and objects of protection – at the maximum possible distance from each other; the use of building structures with improved sound insulation, the use of sound-absorbing materials for lining the enclosing structures of buildings and structures; zoning of sources and objects of protection, application of territorial gaps, noise protection buildings, acoustic screens and strips of greenery. It was found that the maximum possible impact on noise pollution of modern cities and surrounding areas can be achieved in the case of integrated application of methods, means of protection against acoustic blocking of the duration, direction and use of noise emissions in its sources and through noise level on the way to its spread, as well as through the implementation of appropriate organizational and technical measures.
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