Ecological analysis of faunal complexes western region of Ukraine
AbstractThe paper present result of research on the ecological analysis of faunal complexes of the Western region of Ukraine. The animal world of this region is distinct from the other zones. The variety of the landscape determines the variety of the animal world. Ukrainian Carpathians are one of the last area in continental Europe to support viable populations of large carnivores. Established that the endemic to the Western region of Ukraine are carpathian squirrel, carpathian newt, spotted salamander, golden eagle. The most rare animals are: bison, brown bear, lynx, golden eagle, white-tailed eagle, common muskrat, european gopher, forest cat. The Brown bear population in the Ukrainian Carpathian reach approximately 150–200 individuals. The lynx population is officially estimated to be about 350–400 individuals. In Ukraine there are about 300 species of bison. Only 33 nimals left in Ukrainian Skolivsky Beskydy. We can also find noble deer, roe, wolf, moose, hare, squirrel, wild cats and pigs, hamster, field mouse and so on. Some fur animals (nutria, mink, silvery-black fox, muskrat, stone marten, badger) were brought in from afar, and they acclimatized themselves well to the environment. The diverse habitats in the Carpathians support a wide variety of bird species, using the region for nesting, migrating and wintering. Overall, more than 300 species are found in the Zakarpattia. Bird life includes golden eagles and black wood peckers, carrion eagle, black griffons, white-tailed eagle, sparrow, titmouse, owls, gulls, partridge. The golden eagle nests in all the major mountains of Europe, in the Ukrainian Carpathians – 10–15 pairs. The rivers and lakes are home to ducks, geese, storks, swans and cranes. Rivers, lakes and manmade reservoirs of the Western region of Ukraine are inhabited with perch, bream, zander, pike, crucian carp, sazan, carp, sturgeon, trout. Among reptiles, one can come upon vipers, grass-snakes, and lizards. The spotted salamander and three types of tritons are entered in the Red Book. It was found that the most Red species are in Zakarpattia (168) and the least – in Rivne (85 species). The main factors of influence on the biodiversity of the Western region of Ukrain are identified. It is shown that poaching, anthropogenic and recreational activities have the most influence on faunal complex studied region.
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