Structure’s features of esophagus and it’s immune formations of quails
AbstractWe investigated the structural features of the esophagus and it’s immune formations of quails aged two months (n = 4). There weren’t any preventive vaccinations for poultry. During the work, we used macro- and microscopic methods of morphological studies. These macroscopic studies showed that the esophagus of quails is similar to the tube and it starts behind the pharynx, lies above the trachea, and then, near the entrance to the body’s cavity, moves to the right side and lies on the right of the trachea. It’s caudal part passes between the bronchi, lungs, above the heart and, after being slightly narrowed, goes into the glandular part of the stomach. Before entering the chest - abdominal cavity, the wall of esophagus forms the extension – crop, which is used for accumulation and storage the feed. Crop shares the esophagus on the cranial (from pharynx to crop) and caudal (from crop to the glandular part of the stomach) parts. The length of the cranial part of quails is larger than the caudal part. Microscopic studies show that there are some small, isolated accumulations of diffuse lymphoid tissue in the mucous membrane of the quails and they are lying under the epithelium, around the esophageal glands and near the blood vessels. In the area of transition into the glandular part of the stomach, there is an esophageal tonsil, which includes all levels of structural organization of lymphoid tissues (diffuse lymphoid tissue, prenodules, primary and secondary lymphoid nodules), which indicates it’s morphofunctional and tonsil’s maturity. Among the structural levels, diffuse lymphoid tissue occupies the largest area, significantly lower – lymphoid nodules аnd the smallest – prenodules.
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