Morphological features of some organs of the oral cavity of a horse
AbstractComplex classical morphological methods of studies were used in investigation. Pneumatic saccus is placed over the dorsal side of the pharynx and aside of it. Extended basis is attached to the ventral surface of the body and alar processes of sphenoid bone. Lateral wall of the pneumatic saccus is connected with the medial stylohyoid by loose connective tissue. In front, the dorsal wall is adjacent to the alar processes of sphenoid bone. Palatine processes of incisive bone are the basis of the hard palate in front part, maxillary palatine processes – in the middle part and horizontal plates of the palatine bones in the back part. Macroscopically tonsils are clusters of lymphoid tissue limited by connective tissue capsule under the epithelium of the tongue, soft palate and pharynx. Oral cavity mucosa in the tonsils area of cattle and small ruminants forms sinuses or numerous folds, which are separated by furrows of tongue and pharyngeal tonsils in other animal species. The cluster of separate lymphoid nodules and diffuse lymphoid tissue located at the root of the tongue between secretory units of serous mucous glands form the lingual tonsils. In the pharyngeal mucosa between secretory units of mucous glands lymphoid nodules of odd pharyngeal tonsil are located. Even palatine tonsils are located caudal to the palatoglossal arch and from sides of the tongue root. In horse diffuse tonsils crypts are located on the side of the tongue. Clusters of lymphoid nodules form tonsils of pharyngeal lymphoid ring. They have crypts, which look like hollow of the epithelium into lamina propria of mucosa, surrounded by lymphoid nodules and diffuse lymphoid tissue. The epithelium of the mucous membrane is flat non-keratinized stratified, infiltrated with lymphoid cells. Lamina propria of mucosa in the tonsil area forms a connective tissue membrane, from which layers of connective tissue with blood vessels depart to the middle. Glands’ secretory units are found in the connective tissue base, glands’ excretory ducts open into the lumen of the crypts. Lymphoid tissue is the basis of parenchyma, which is formed by reticular tissue and lymphoid cells.
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