Diazinon. The main aspects of biological effect, toxicological properties and pathomorphology poisoning


  • V. Tumanov Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after S.Z. Gzhytskyi
Keywords: diazinon, organophosphate pesticides, poisoning, pathomorphology, acetylcholinesterase, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, diazokson, necrotic and dystrophic changes of nerve cells, disintegration of the myelin

Abstract

The article represents data on chemical properties and main aspects of the biological action of the diazinon - organophosphate pesticide that is widely used as a drug with marked acaricidal and insecticidal properties. Analyzed published data on metabolism, diazinon accumulation in various organs and systems, and ways of removing from the body. The article shows the median lethal dose (LD50) diazinon for various kinds of animals. The special features of the pathogenesis of poisoning, the main mechanism of action of toxic organophosphorus pesticides is the phosphorylation and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in a marked accumulation of acetylcholine in the cholinergic synapses, excessive stimulation of nerves and muscles, disruption passage of nerve impulses. The article detailed the clinical signs of acute poisoning by organophosphate compounds. These data indicate that the effects on the body organophosphorus pesticides includes muscarinic effects (sialorrhea and excessive secretion of sweat glands, bronchorrhea, increased motility of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by spastic contractions of the intestinal wall, vomiting and gastroenteritis), nicotine action (miofibrillation, rigidity pectoral muscles, paralysis of respiratory muscles with the development of sudden hypoxemia) and central effects (arising from the impact of the central nervous system and are accompanied by violation of its function). The analysis pathmorphology of poisoning of the organophosphate pesticide. These data indicate that structural changes diazinon poisoning is less specific than clinical signs and characterized by: the development of the circulatory disorders (acute congestive hyperemia recorded and hemorrhage), the appearance of dystrophic and necrotic changes parenchymal elements of the brain and spinal cord, liver, kidneys and so on. Also recorded alterations changes ganglion cells and spinal cord autonomic ganglion, proliferation of glial cells, and for subacute and chronic poisoning – disintegration of the myelin and nerve fibers axial cylinder. Described diazinon influence on organs of the immune system and ability to induce endocrine disorders. There are published data on the potential mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects of the diazinon. The range of problems researd structural changes by the origin and development of clinical evidence for the effect of different doses diazinon and certain aspects of forensic veterinary diagnostic poisoning mammals and birds of organophosphate pesticides.

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Published
2017-03-05
How to Cite
Tumanov, V. (2017). Diazinon. The main aspects of biological effect, toxicological properties and pathomorphology poisoning. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 19(77), 131-136. https://doi.org/10.15421/nvlvet7729