Sanitary and hygienic assessment of milk of cereal different producers in conformity with international requirements
Providing the population with high-quality livestock products is one of the most important tasks of the workers of the agricultural sector of Ukraine, who invest enormous creative energy and considerable funds for the maximum provision of milk and dairy products to the population. Milk refers to essential products and is, along with bread and meat, one of the components of the food security of any country. According to the FAO expert classification, milk belongs to the most valuable foodstuffs of a person, without which it is impossible to cultivate a full-fledged young generation of people. Currently, high-quality and safe milk suitable for the production of high-quality dairy products and baby food products can be produced only by professional dairy farms. Ukraine is implementing the necessary reforms in order to adapt the legal regime for the safety and quality of food products in full compliance with the WTO Agreement «On the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures» and simultaneously harmonizes Ukrainian legislation with the requirements of the European Community. In our country there is a regulatory framework regulating the safety and quality of milk. The Law of Ukraine «On Amendments to the Law of Ukraine», «On Milk and Dairy Products» improves the standards of safety and quality of dairy products, envisages that milk, dairy raw materials and dairy products that produce in Ukraine must comply with the safety and quality indicators established normative legal acts of Ukraine. It should be noted that the issue of safety of raw milk is of paramount importance, which in many cases does not correspond to European standards, especially with bacterial insemination. Quality and safety of milk are often unsatisfactory due to insufficiency and poor quality of feed, negligence during milking, storage and transportation, poor condition of milking and refrigeration equipment farms, insufficient supply of means of filtration and disinfection, and the presence of mastitis in cows. Taking into account the above, there is a need for risk analysis in the production of raw milk for the purpose of identifying critical points for the management of milk production as raw materials. The safety and quality of milk of various dairy enterprises, which is used for nutrition of the population of Ukraine, is determined. It was established that according to organoleptic parameters, density, acidity of milk, fat content, protein, dry fat-free residue, dry matter, bacterial insemination of milk of trademarks «Vita» (PAT-ZLK «Ukraine»), «Yagotinsk» and agro-food market of Belaya Church, Kyiv region, complied with the requirements of the current national standard of Ukraine (DSTU 3662:2015). Milk of trademarks «Vita» (PJSC «ZHLK Ukraine», «Yagotinskaya» on the purity of milk (amount of mechanical impurities), falsification – impurities of water and pollution with alkaline detergent – up to 5% did not meet the requirements of the current DSTU 3662:2015. For the first time a method was used to determine the falsification of milk by sodium bicarbonate using bromocresol green (Patent of Ukraine for Utility Model No. 118246; 2017). For the first time, a method was used to determine the number of somatic cells in milk (presence of subclinical mastitis) using a solution of Reagent N (Austria) with alkaline medium (Patent of Ukraine for Utility Model No. 118247, 2017). The proposed methods are reliable (99.2–99.8%), effective, expressive, convenient in carrying out, do not require reagents and can be used in combination with other methods for determining the safety and quality of milk.
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