Morphological features of cerebellum in cattle
The features of the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the cerebellum of the sexually mature bovine cattle (cattle) are described in the article at the use of anatomical, histological, neurohistological, and morphometric methods of research. According to research results, the cerebellum of cattle is characterized by general principles of its structural organization and morphotography, however, it differs by organometric indices. Thus, according to the research of organometry, the absolute mass of the cerebellum of the cattle is 72.59 ± 0.94 g, the relative – 0.02 ± 0.002%, its length is 42.1 ± 0.36 mm, width – 55, 3 ± 0.41, height – 43.5 ± 0.44 mm. The gray matter of the cerebellum is placed superficially and forms its bark, white is in the center. In gray matter, the cerebellum distinguishes three layers of cells: the molecular (outer), ganglionic (medium) and granular (internal), which have different thickness and are characterized by unequal population of neurons. The molecular layer of the cerebellum is the most superficial. It contains small neurons – baskets and stars. The ganglionic layer of the cerebellum cortex is represented by extremely large Purkinje cells, placed in one row at a slight distance from each other. Their neuroplasma contains pronounced depths of basophilic granularity, which indicates the intensive development of a white-oxygen synthesizing apparatus, which is in the form of small or larger grains, evenly filling almost the whole neuroplasm. The cerebellum consists of a large number of neurons: Golgi cells and star cells, which are of two kinds (short-axon and long-axon). According to the results of cytomorphometric studies, the average cell neuron volume parameter of Purkinje cerebellum in cattle is 6581.62 ± 688.7 μm3, and the values of the nucleus of Purkinje cells are 484.48 ± 94.5 μm3. Proceeding from the average indices of the volume of pericarion of nerve cells and their nuclei, the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio is accordingly 0.079 ± 0.002. As a result of our morphometric studies of architectonic layers in the comparative aspect, it was established that the largest thickness of the cerebellum cortex is characteristic of its molecular layer – 413.01 ± 10.84 μm (53.2%), smaller in granular – 313.60 ± 13.84 μm (40.4%) and the smallest in the ganglionic one is 49.03 ± 1.94 μm (6.32%). The total thickness of the cerebellum cortex in cattle is 775.64 ± 26.62 μm.
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