The investigation of the quality of water resources of decentralized water-supply of rural areas in Berezhany district
The main anthropogenic factors of chemical and toxicological pollution of decentralized water-supply sources in rural settlements are examined. Complex estimation of water pollution level is made and the dependence of subsoil waters quality from season changes is elicited on the example of countryside within Berezany district Ternopil region. Berezhany district is mostly agricultural and that’s why agriculture becomes one of the biggest polluters of water resources especially subsoil. Dangerous source of water pollution, especially in the period of spring flooding and rainfall flooding are diffuse runoffs from agricultural areas/ in three to four times more nutrients and suspended solids are imposed from them than from natural areas. In the qualitative composition (cation and anions content mineralization ) among subsoil’s waters of Ternopil region, that are used for water-supply, essentially dominate bicarbonate-sulfate calcium-sodium waters with mineralization 0.2–0.8 g/dm3. Especially in Berezhany district subsoil fresh waters have bicarbonate-sulfate calcium-sodium composition with common mineralization of 0.5–0.7 g/dm3. There are 3432 artesian wells in the region, including 2679 in the countryside and 753 in towns and 74296 mine pits. It is found that on this territory low concentrations of nitrites during the whole period of research are marked. Except for isolated cases of its growth: in the village Zhukiv (to 0.02 mg/dm3) in autumn and Posurhiv (to 0.04 mg/dm3) in spring, that are explained by the increasing of quantity of fall-outs and respectively, growth of runoff from agricultural lands. Small concentrations of nitrites in groundwater’s on the district territory (less more than 0.01 mg/dm3) are due to their extreme instability. They are oxidized, moving to the most stable inorganic nitrogen – nitrates. Concerning nitrates, their high levels with gradual growth from spring to autumn is found. In the village Zhukiv the figure does not exceed the norm, except in autumn, where it is 52.35mg/dm3. Significant increase of nitrates concentration on the territory of these villages in autumns is explained by the fact, than during the rains polluting substances penetrated into groundwater’s, that drained from fields, where nitrogen fertilizers were given. In summer this increase can be explained by fertilization. Receiver results speak about poor state of ground waters as the sources of decentralized water-supply due to increasing of nitrate contents in these objects. It is shown that effluents and fertilizers that are given into the soil, make the most influence on the quality of water from underground sources. It is also founded the increasing of contents of nitrites, nitrates, chlorides, sulphates in spring during snowmelting and in autumn during rains. Considering the excess of nitrates norm in ground water it is necessarily control making of nitrogen fertilizers into soil. It is necessary to conduct purification of drinking water before its usage. It is obviously that on the areas with higher percentage of “unstandard” water the morbidity of cancer is higher. The effect of influence of water with higher contents of nitrates increases against the background of malnutrition that is particularly in the current crisis period of life.
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