Critically important antimicrobial preparations for veterinary medicine
The resistance of microorganisms, bacterial pathogens, to antimicrobials is a global problem in both healthcare and veterinary medicine. It is believed that the main reason for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in humans is the transfer of antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms or genes, determinants of resistance, through products of animal origin from productive animals to humans. Thus, the main way of antimicrobial resistance containment is to restrain and minimize it through the prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine, especially those that are critically important for productive animals. In addition, some classes of antibacterial substances and antibiotics, that are widely used in humane medicine, are used in veterinary medicine. The need to use and preserve these important therapeutic agents is relevant from the point of view of the concept «One Health». The article provides a list of all antibacterial substances used by productive animals for their importance in veterinary medicine, developed by a special group of experts of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Any antimicrobial agent authorized for use in veterinary medicine for productive animals, in accordance with the criteria for quality, safety and efficacy as defined in Section 6.9 of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code, is considered to be important for veterinary medicine. All the antimicrobial substances used for productive animals are divided in this list on critical, very important and important for veterinary medicine. Attention was also drawn to the peculiarities of the use of critical antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine, especially those recognized as critical in humane medicine. These include aminoglycosides, cephalosporins of the 3rd and 4th generation, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, macrolides, some penicillins and polymyxins. The article also describes the classification of critical antimicrobials by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Panel of Experts on Antimicrobials (AMEG) of the WHO based on the risk profile for humans through the development of antimicrobial resistance after application to productive animals. Such an assessment will give veterinary practitioners an important justification when they make decisions about the clinical treatment of bacterial infections and the responsible appointment of antimicrobial therapy. This will help to reach the balance among the achievement of the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy of productive animals, reducing of the selective pressure on the development of antibiotic resistance and ensuring of a high level of human health.
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