Immunobiological status of the body of cows during mastitis

Keywords: cows, mammary gland, lactation, local immunity, immunocompetent cells, mastitis, immune homeostasis.


The work reveals the immunobiological aspects of lactation of cows and changes in immunobiological reactivity in the development of mastitis.The authors present modern scientific data on the local immune protection of the mammary gland of cows. Main stages of ontogenetic development of cellular immunity of the mammary gland of cows were traced during clinical and experimental studies. The number of somatic cells in the secret of the mammary gland of the primates was dependent on the period of the functioning of the mammary gland. In the cytology of colostrum mostly (56.00 ± 1.90%) neutrophil granulocytes were predominant, in the middle period of lactation (3–5th month) the proportion of epithelial cells increased (from 29.51 ± 2.17 to 49.59 ± 1.94%), during the launch period, the population of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes was changing as well, which virtually recovered to the original level and increased during the dry period. However, at the end of lactation, during the onset and dry, with the development of involutionary processes in the mammary gland, a sharp decrease in cytochemical reactivity of intracellular lysozyme of phagocytic cells was observed. To conduct clinical and experimental studies, three groups of animals were formed. As a result, it was found out that subclinical mastitis of cows is accompanied by a change in the immunobiological reactivity. Purulent-catarrhal mastitis in cows was manifested by significant changes in the parameters of nonspecific immunological reactivity. In the peripheral blood of cows with subclinical mastitis, the number of reactive microphages increased sharply (P < 0.001). In parallel with this, the number of activated phagocytes with myeloperoxidase granules also increased in the peripheral blood (P < 0.01). Activation of intra-leukocyte lysozyme phagocytic cells was less intensive. Subclinical udder pathology was accompanied by an increase in the number of degranulated cells (P < 0.001), which is one of the specific properties of cytomorphological changes in programmed death (apoptosis). Subclinical inflammation of the mammary glands mastitis of cows was accompanied by a certain decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes (P < 0.001). Clinical and experimental studies have shown that subclinical and purulent-catarrhal mastitis of cows undergo significant changes in systemic immunity. In the pathophysiological model of subclinical and purulent-catarrhal mastitis, the functional state of the T-link of specific immunity was disturbed, the bactericidal activity of blood serum and phagocytosis were suppressed, which occurred against the background of changes in the cytochemical reactivity of phagocytic cells circulating immune complexes and molecules with an average molecular weigh.


Abebe, R., Hatiya, H., Abera, M., Megersa, B., & Asmare, K. (2016). Bovine mastitis: prevalence, risk factors and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy herds at Hawassa milk shed, South Ethiopia. BMC Veterinary Research, 12, 270. doi: 10.1186/s12917- 016-0905-3.

Al-Farha, A.-B., Hemmatzadeh, F., Khazandi, M., Hoare, A., & Petrovski, K. (2017). Evaluation of effects of Mycoplasma mastitis on milk composition in dairy cattle from South Australia. BMC Veterinary Research, 13, 351. doi: 10.1186/s12917-017-1274-2.

Blum, S.E., Heller, E.D., Sela, S., Elad, D., Edery, N., & Leitner, G. (2015). Genomic and Phenomic Study of Mammary Pathogenic Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE, 10(9), e0136387. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136387.

Cao, Y., Su, B., Chinnaraj, S., Jana, S., Bowen, L., Charlton, S., … Chen, J. (2018). Nanostructured titanium surfaces exhibit recalcitrance towards Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. Scientific Reports, 8, 1071. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-19484-x.

Ceniti, C., Britti, D., Santoro, A. M. L., Musarella, R., Ciambrone, L., Casalinuovo, F., & Costanzo, N. (2017). Phenotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Isolates Causing Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals. Italian Journal of Food Safety, 6(2), 6612. doi: 10.4081/ijfs.2017.6612.

Delfani, S., Bahmani, M., Mohammadrezaei- Khorramabadi, R., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2017). Phytotherapy in Streptococcus agalactiae: An Overview of the Medicinal Plants Effective against Streptococcus agalactiae. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR, 11(6), DE01–DE02. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/25530.9988.

Green, M.J., Bradley, A.J., Medley, G.F., & Browne, W.J.(2007). Cow, Farm, and Management Factors During the Dry Period that Determine the Rate of Clinical Mastitis After Calving. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(8), 3764–3776. doi: 10.3168/jds.2007-0107.

Günther, J., Petzl, W., Bauer, I., Ponsuksili, S., Zerbe, H., Schuberth, H.-J., & Seyfert, H.-M. (2017). Differentiating Staphylococcus aureus from Escherichia coli mastitis: S. aureus triggers unbalanced immune-dampening and host cell invasion immediately after udder infection. Scientific Reports, 7, 4811. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-05107-4.

Gutyj, B., Grymak, Y., Drach, M., Bilyk, O., Matsjuk, O., Magrelo, N., Zmiya, M., & Katsaraba, O. (2017). The impact of endogenous intoxication on biochemical indicators of blood of pregnant cows. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 438–443. doi: 10.15421/021768

Hamilton, C., Emanuelson, U., Forslund, K., Hansson, I., & Ekman, T. (2006). Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 48(1), 11. doi: 10.1186/1751-0147-48-11.

Herry, V., Gitton, C., Tabouret, G., Répérant, M., Forge, L., Tasca, C., & Rainard, P. (2017). Local immunization impacts the response of dairy cows to Escherichia coli mastitis. Scientific Reports, 7, 3441. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-03724-7.

Kempf, F., Slugocki, C., Blum, S. E., Leitner, G., & Germon, P. (2016). Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE, 11(1), e0147954. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147954.

Kurjogi, M.M., & Kaliwal, B.B. (2014). Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2014, 968076. doi: 10.1155/2014/968076.

Law, A.M.K., Lim, E., Ormandy, C.J., & Gallego-Ortega, D. (2017). The innate and adaptive infiltrating immune systems as targets for breast cancer immunotherapy. Endocrine-Related Cancer, 24(4), R123–R144. doi: 10.1530/ERC-16-0404.

Lombardini, M., Meriggi, A., & Fozzi, A. (2017). Factors influencing wild boar damage to agricultural crops in Sardinia (Italy). Current Zoology, 63(5), 507–514. doi: 10.1093/cz/zow099.

Ndhlovu, D.N., & Masika, P.J. (2017). In vitro efficacy of extracts from plants used by small-holder farmers in the treatment of dermatophilosis in cattle. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines, 14(2), 263–272. doi: 10.21010/ajtcam.v14i2.28.

Pang, M., Sun, L., He, T., Bao, H., Zhang, L., Zhou, Y., … Wang, R. (2017). Molecular and virulence characterization of highly prevalent Streptococcus agalactiae circulated in bovine dairy herds. Veterinary Research, 48, 65. doi: 10.1186/s13567-017-0461-2.

Rainard, P. (2017). Mammary microbiota of dairy ruminants: fact or fiction? Veterinary Research, 48, 25. doi: 10.1186/s13567-017-0429-2.

Sato, T., Usui, M., Konishi, N., Kai, A., Matsui, H., Hanaki, H., & Tamura, Y. (2017). Closely related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from retail meat, cows with mastitis, and humans in Japan. PLoS ONE, 12(10), e0187319. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187319.

Singh, A.V., Vyas, V., Patil, R., Sharma, V., Scopelliti, P. E., Bongiorno, G., … Milani, P. (2011). Quantitative Characterization of the Influence of the Nanoscale Morphology of Nanostructured Surfaces on Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation. PLoS ONE, 6(9), e25029. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025029.

Thompson-Crispi, K., Atalla, H., Miglior, F., & Mallard, B.A. (2014). Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics. Frontiers in Immunology, 5, 493. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00493.

Wang, X., Zhong, J., Gao, Y., Ju, Z., & Huang, J. (2014). A SNP in intron 8 of CD46 causes a novel transcript associated with mastitis in Holsteins. BMC Genomics, 15(1), 630. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-630.

Wu, J., Li, L., Sun, Y., Huang, S., Tang, J., Yu, P., & Wang, G. (2015). Altered Molecular Expression of the TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Mammary Tissue of Chinese Holstein Cattle with Mastitis. PLoS ONE, 10(2), e0118458. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118458.

Yablonskyi, V.A., & Zhelavskyi, M.M. (2008). Doslidzhennia tsytokhimichnoi reaktyvnosti neitrofiliv krovi koriv v period laktatsii. Naukovі dopovіdі Nacіonal'nogo agrarnogo unіversitetu, 2(10), 1‒5 (in Ukranian).

Yablonskyi, V.A. & Zhelavskyi, M.M. (2010). Osoblyvosti proiavu klitynnoho imunnoho zakhystu orhanizmu koriv v rizni periody laktatsii ta pry subklinichnomu mastyti. Naukovі dopovіdі Nacіonal'- nogo unіversitetu bіoresursіv і prirodokoristuvannja Ukraini, 2(20), 1‒8 4/10yvalsm.pdf (in Ukranian).

Yablonskyi, V.A., & Zhelavskyi, M.M. (2014). Apoptoz ta jogo znachennja v reguljacii' imunnogo gomeostazu organizmu tvaryn (ogljad literatury ta vlasnyh doslidzhen'). Naukovyj visnyk veterynarnoi' medycyny: zbirnyk naukovyh prac' Bilocerkivs'kogo nacional'nogo agrarnogo universytetu, 13(108), 9‒13. (in Ukranian).

Zhelavskyj, M.M. (2008). Funkcional'na aktyvnist' ta stan apoptozu fagocytiv krovi koriv v period laktacii'. Naukovyj visnyk L'vivs'koi' nacional'noi' akademii' veterynarnoi' medycyny im. S.Z. G'zhyc'kogo, 10, 2(37), 2, 72–75. (in Ukranian).

Zhelavskyi, M.M. (2010). Zmіny fagocytarnogo zahystu organіzmu korіv pry subklіnіchnomu mastytі.Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu veterynarnoi medytsyny ta biotekhnolohii imeni S.Z. Gzhytskoho, 12, 2(44), 93–96. (in Ukranian).

Zhelavskyi, M.M. (2011). Zmіna Oksigennezalezhnogo protymіkrobnogo potencіalu fagocytіv sekretu molochnoi zalozy korіv za subklіnіchnogo mastytu. Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu veterynarnoi medytsyny ta biotekhnolohii imeni S.Z. Gzhytskoho, 13, 4(50), 124–127. __25 (in Ukranian).

Zhelavskyi, M.M. (2014). Stan apoptozu imunokompetentnyh klityn peryferychnoi' krovi koriv za subklinichnogo mastytu. Zbirnyk naukovyh prac' Nacional'nogo universytetu bioresursiv i pryrodokorystuvannja Ukrai'ny za pidsumkamy IV naukovo-praktychnoi' konferencii' vchenyh, aspirantiv i studentiv, 4, 11‒12.Збірник% 202014%204%20секція.pdf (in Ukranian).

Zhelavskyi, N.N. (2015). Funkcional'noe sostojanie kletochnyh faktorov lokal'nogo immuniteta molochnoj zhelezy korov v razlichnye periody laktacii. Aktual'nye problemy intensivnogo razvitija zhivotnovodstva: sbornik nauchnyh trudov UO “Belorusskaja gosudarstvennaja sel'skohozjajstvennaja akademija”, 18(2), 187 ‒ 197 n/funktsionalnoe-sostoyanie-kletochnyh-faktorovlokalnogo- immuniteta-molochnoy-zhelezy-korov-vrazlichnye- periody-laktatsii (in Russian). Zhelavskyi, N.N. (2017). Izmenenie lokal'noj immunnoj zashhity molochnoj zhelezy korov pri mastite. Uchenye zapiski uchrezhdenija obrazovanija “Vitebskaja ordena “Znak pocheta” gosudarstvennaja akademija veterinarnoj mediciny», 53(2), 53–56 (in Russian).

Zhelavskyi, M.M. (2017). Ontogenetic features of the formation of local immune protection of the mammary gland of cows (literature review and original research). Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after S.Z. Gzhytskyj, 19(79), 3–8. doi: 10.15421/nvlvet7801.

Zhelavskyi, M.M., & Shunin, I.M. (2017). The status of extracellular antimicrobial potential of phagocytes genitals of cats. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after S.Z. Gzhytskyj, 19(73), 71–74. doi: 10.15421/nvlvet7315.

Zhelavskyi, M.M., & Shunin, I.M. (2017). Clinical use of Aglepristone for treatment of open-cervix pyometra in cats. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after S.Z. Gzhytskyj, 19(78), 9–12. doi:10.15421/nvlvet7802.

Zhelavsky, N.N. (2018). Immunobiological aspects of the pathogenesis of mastitis of cows. Uchenye zapiski of the establishment of education “Vitebsk order of the” Sign of Honor “State Academy of Veterinary Medicine”, 54(2), 23–26. v-2.pdf (in Russian).

Zhelavskyi, M. (2018). Changes in the immunobiological reactivity of the organism of cows in the pathogenesis of mastitis. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series “Veterinary Sciences”, 20(83), 77–82. doi: 10.15421/nvlvet8315.

Zhelavsky, N.N., Mizik, V.P., & Kerinichnyi, S.P. (2018). Actual problems of infertility of cows of the western Podillya of Ukraine. Uchenye zapiski of the establishment of education “Vitebsk order of the” Sign of Honor “State Academy of Veterinary Medicine”, 54(2), 26–29. uploads/2013/11/2018-Uchenye-zapiski-t-54- v-2.pdf (in Russian).
How to Cite
Zhelavskyi, M., & Dmytriv, O. (2018). Immunobiological status of the body of cows during mastitis. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 20(88), 3-10. Retrieved from