Immunobiological status of the body of cows during mastitis


Keywords: cows, mammary gland, lactation, local immunity, immunocompetent cells, mastitis, immune homeostasis.

Abstract

The work reveals the immunobiological aspects of lactation of cows and changes in immunobiological reactivity in the development of mastitis.The authors present modern scientific data on the local immune protection of the mammary gland of cows. Main stages of ontogenetic development of cellular immunity of the mammary gland of cows were traced during clinical and experimental studies. The number of somatic cells in the secret of the mammary gland of the primates was dependent on the period of the functioning of the mammary gland. In the cytology of colostrum mostly (56.00 ± 1.90%) neutrophil granulocytes were predominant, in the middle period of lactation (3–5th month) the proportion of epithelial cells increased (from 29.51 ± 2.17 to 49.59 ± 1.94%), during the launch period, the population of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes was changing as well, which virtually recovered to the original level and increased during the dry period. However, at the end of lactation, during the onset and dry, with the development of involutionary processes in the mammary gland, a sharp decrease in cytochemical reactivity of intracellular lysozyme of phagocytic cells was observed. To conduct clinical and experimental studies, three groups of animals were formed. As a result, it was found out that subclinical mastitis of cows is accompanied by a change in the immunobiological reactivity. Purulent-catarrhal mastitis in cows was manifested by significant changes in the parameters of nonspecific immunological reactivity. In the peripheral blood of cows with subclinical mastitis, the number of reactive microphages increased sharply (P < 0.001). In parallel with this, the number of activated phagocytes with myeloperoxidase granules also increased in the peripheral blood (P < 0.01). Activation of intra-leukocyte lysozyme phagocytic cells was less intensive. Subclinical udder pathology was accompanied by an increase in the number of degranulated cells (P < 0.001), which is one of the specific properties of cytomorphological changes in programmed death (apoptosis). Subclinical inflammation of the mammary glands mastitis of cows was accompanied by a certain decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes (P < 0.001). Clinical and experimental studies have shown that subclinical and purulent-catarrhal mastitis of cows undergo significant changes in systemic immunity. In the pathophysiological model of subclinical and purulent-catarrhal mastitis, the functional state of the T-link of specific immunity was disturbed, the bactericidal activity of blood serum and phagocytosis were suppressed, which occurred against the background of changes in the cytochemical reactivity of phagocytic cells circulating immune complexes and molecules with an average molecular weigh.

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Published
2018-08-25
How to Cite
Zhelavskyi, M., & Dmytriv, O. (2018). Immunobiological status of the body of cows during mastitis. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 20(88), 3-10. Retrieved from https://nvlvet.com.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/1625