Fagotherapy of cows mastitis as an alternative to antibiotics in the system of obtaining environmentally safe milk
The global market for environmentally friendly food products has been developing rapidly in recent decades and is becoming an alternative to the consumption of harmful, environmentally hazardous products. The prohibition of the use of chemically-synthesized traditional veterinary drugs or antibiotics for prophylactic purposes is one of the requirements for conducting an organic dairy farm. The purpose of the work is to review literature on the possible use of bacteriophages for the treatment of mastitis of cows with the aim of obtaining ecologically safe milk. Mastitis is among the most common diseases of cows. The particular importance in the onset of the disease is the microbial factor. A wide range of microorganisms that can cause mastitis, and the significant spread of these bacteria, make complete eradication of mastitis unlikely. Drugs are used for the treatment of mastitis, which in most cases contain antimicrobial substances such as antibiotics, sulfanilamides, nitrofurans etc. Despite the great success in treating antibiotics, there are a number of negative side effects, including the emergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. An obvious alternative to the use of antibacterial drugs in the treatment of cows mastitis is the use of highly effective ecologically safe drugs based on raw materials of plant, mineral and animal origin. Currently, considerable experience in the successful use of phages for the treatment of bacterial infections has been accumulated in foreign and domestic medical and scientific practice. The use of bacteriophages in compliance with generally accepted principles can achieve a significant therapeutic result. The antibacterial effect of bacteriophage drugs is due to the introduction of the phage genome into a bacterial cell, followed by its reproduction and lysis of the infected cell. Phages released into the environment as a result of lysis bacteria re-infect and lysis of other bacterial cells, acting until the complete destruction of pathogenic bacteria in the inflammatory site. Bacteriophages have several advantages: specificity of action, absence of inhibition of normal microflora and allergic reaction. In addition, a weighty argument in favor of expediency of clinical use of bacteriophages is almost complete absence of side effects, and, consequently, contraindications.
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