Cross-border dissemination of lumpy skin disease: risc analysis for Ukraine
National biosecurity is a system of organizational and technical measures that help protect humans, animals and the environment from potential and actual biological threats. That is why analysis of the main hazardous biological sources for humans and animals has been carried out. The influence of climate change on the animals’ welfare as well as their predisposition to the deferred type tendency is proved. The prevalence of vector diseases of animals, mycoses and mycotoxicoses, which can manifest themselves in the form of such emergencies as outbreaks of exotic diseases, large-scale epizootics, a sharp increase of the incidence of endemic diseases, etc., are of both ecological and biological danger. Contagious vesicular (nodular) dermatitis (Lumpy skin disease, LSD) is caused by the virus belonging to the genus Capripoxvirus, the Poxviridae family and affects mainly cattle and buffaloes. The virus is distributed mainly by means of mechanical carriers (species of Stomoxys spp. and other flies). Global warming on the European continent facilitates the migration of blood-sucking insects that are carriers of vector diseases. As a result, the insects occupy new ecological niches adapting to the new biocenoses. A poorly controlled movement of large numbers of livestock also creates a risk of disease spreading. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) has identified LSD as highly dangerous illnesses subject to notification. The focus is made on policies dealing with the control and eradication of contagious nodular dermatitis in case of its detection. The spread of LSD can be prevented through the introduction of biosafety measures at the farm level and the introduction of restrictions on the movement of infection-susceptible animals and goods from the infected territories. Vaccination is the most effective disease control tool in endemic areas. LSD control and elimination policy in case of disease detection includes sanitary slaughter (stamping-out) of infected animals – a complex of antiepizootic measures that carry out by direction of the chief state inspector, including the slaughter of sick and infected animals of the herd, and if necessary, animals of another herd that could lead before the transmission of a pathogenic agent – the pathogen of contagious nodular dermatitis of cattle. All animals, that are susceptible to the disease, whether vaccinated or not, are clogged and their carcasses are destroyed by burning, burial with the guarantee of preventing the spread of infection through carcasses or other products of dead animals. Emergency control of outbreaks envisages the ring vaccination of buffer zones within 25–50 km from infected areas, as well as foundation of temporary or permanent slaughter places in the infected areas. Sufficient herd immunity must be created and maintained within large territories both around the infected area and at the borders with infected countries. Such immunity is achieved when 80% of the herd is covered by vaccination.
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