Risk of occurence and prophylaxis of bronchospasm in representatives of athletic kinds of sports
The problem of bronchospasm caused by physical activity is relevant both, in the sport of high achievements and for those who lead an active way of life. The high prevalence of BFL in the sport of high achievements is due to intense physical activity, the influence of climatic factors and the conditions of the training process. However, athletes who regularly do sports and have BFL, experience symptoms of obstruction all the time. Moreover, physical activity can provoke inflammation of the respiratory tract with the synthesis of cysteine leukotrienes, leukocytic infiltration of the mucosa and some other features. Mediators play an important role in the mechanisms of development of BFN. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes (LT) are the main factors that determine both severity and duration of symptoms of asthma. Cisteinil LT contribute to the development of bronchospasm, the greatest biological activity is characterized by LT C4, which is further transformed into a metabolite of LT E4 through the LT D4. A number of studies have found that the presence of clinical symptoms of difficult breathing, according to the results of the survey, is not a reliable indicator of BFN and requires objective confirmation in the form of an examination of the function of external respiration after exercise. It is known that athletes actively training with PFN there is a significant increase in the excretion of LT E4 and 9α, 11β-prostaglandin F2 in the urine, as well as the indicators of LT C4 and B4 in blood plasma after intense physical activity. In addition, physical activity has a powerful stimulating effect on cysteine luteum production, enhancing the expression of genes encoding the 5-lipoxygenase transformation pathway of arachidonic acid. 30% athletes of athletic sport show BFL availability. The exercise test should be conducted under certain conditions. During the test, a high level of ventilation of the lungs should be maintained. The use of load testing to detect bronchoconstriction induced by FN has a high predictive value. The article are presents the results of the study of respiratory system in athletes engaged in athletic sports (powerlifting, arm wrestling, weightlifting and weight training). We studied the parameters of spirometry and pneumothachometry in a state of rest, after the simulation of physical activity, as well as in the process of recovery. Using the analysis of the obtained indicators and their statistical processing, the probability of the occurrence of bronchospasm of physical activity was established, which may complicate the ventilation of the lungs. Preventive measures of the BFL from persons regularly engaged in sports are an important part of the training process. LFK complexes consist of daily aerobic workloads and follow-up breathing exercises. The criteria for the effectiveness of preventive measures are indicators of lungs function, level of physical capacity (PWC), optimization of ventilatory response to physical activity, reduction of bronchial reactivity. Methods of exercise therapy and respiratory gymnastics are directly relevant to improving the quality of life, and can act as a method of nonspecific therapy.
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