The content of fatty acids in the meat of snails by the action of heat processing
Increasing food production and improving their quality is one of the main problems facing the agro-industrial complex of Ukraine in modern conditions. The solution of this problem is impossible only by increasing the production of livestock products, although this is the main source of their receipt. It is necessary to use additional, non-traditional types of raw materials containing full proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and other biologically active substances necessary for the human body. One of these sources may be meat of food types of snails. It maintains a complex of replaceable and essential amino acids, vitamins, inorganic elements, carbohydrates and fats. The purpose of our work was to determine the content of fatty acids in cooked meat of the food species Helix pomatia, Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. This article presents the results of the content of fatty acids in meat of food snails using the method of gas chromatography. The presence and quantity of fatty acids is determined in three types of snails. In general, the meat of snails contains both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The composition of saturated fatty acids includes – kapron, palmithin, stearin, myristic, arachin, capryl, laurin, begen, kaprin, heptadecanova. From unsaturated fatty acids, snail meat contains omega-3, omega-6, oleinic, palmitoleic, linoleic, arachidonic, linolenic, cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic, cis-11,14-eicosadenic, cis-13,16-doceta-adenoic, docosapentaenoic. As a result of our research on the content of fatty acids in cooked meat of snails, we found that the mass fraction of 11 unsaturated fatty acids – oleinic, palmitoleic, linoleic, omega-3, omega-6, arachidonic, linolenic, cis-5,8,11, 14,17-eicosapentaenoic, cis-11,14-eicosadenic, cis-13,16-doceta-adenoic, docosapentaenoic to a mass fraction of 10 saturated fatty acids is significantly different in each type of snail. Thus, the mass fraction of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids is in the meat of Helix pomatia, Helix aspersa maxima, Helix aspersa muller 1:5.73; 1:5.05 and 1:4.81 respectively. Most of all, unsaturated fatty acids are found in boiled meat of Helix pomatia snails and amount to 126.77% to the sum of fatty acids, and saturated – in the boiled meat of Helix aspersa muller snails – 24.86% to the sum of fatty acids. Useful and well-known all fatty acids ω-3 and ω-6 enriched boiled meat of Helix aspersa maxima snails – 49.06% to the sum of fatty acids, while Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa muller are 48.81 and 44.35% to the amount of fatty acids, respectively. It should be noted that the total content of fatty acids in the meat of snails varies in the following limits: Helix pomatia snails 148.89, Helix aspersa maxima 149.11, and Helix aspersa muller 144.4. Thus it can be argued that in the boiled meat of the three types of snails we studied, which is Helix pomatia, Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller can be used as a valuable source of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
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