The structural features of the sculls of animals of a series of Carnivore


Keywords: head skeleton, carnivores, morphology, craniometry

Abstract

Predators is medium-sized and large mammal leading a terrestrial way of life. They are mostly carnivorous animals, the nature of nutrition of which indicate certain devices are reflected in the structure of the scull. The aim of the work is to conduct a comparative anatomical study of the structure of the scull and to determine the craniometric indicators in animals of families Feline (Domestic cat), Canine (Domestic dog, Wolf, Fox ordinary) and Mustelidae (stone marten, forest polecat, badger ordinary) a squad of Carnivore. Comparative anatomical, craniological and statistical methods of research were used. It was found that the scull of test animals is of a General anatomical structure (wide temporal fossa, a deep masseteric fossa, well-defined nuchal and external sagittal crests, the presence of angular process on mandible, relatively large tympanic bullas, underdeveloped lacrimal bone) and species differences (topography of split of the external sagittal crest, shape of mandibular angular process, the presence of intratympanical part of the temporal bone). Absolute craniometrical indices of badger more of indicators of marten, since they directly depend on the weight and body size of these animals. There are most vary the overall length of the scull (1.69 times; P < 0.001), length of bony palate (1.82 times; P < 0.001), length of the external sagittal crest (3.67 times; P < 0.001), width of bony palate at the level of the first premolar and the last molar (2.33 times; P < 0.001), width of choans on the level of hook-shaped processes of pterygoid bone (1.75 times; P < 0.01), width of choans at the level of the caudal edge of the Palatine bone (2 times; P < 0.05), the total height of the scull (2.36 times; P < 0.001). Most of the relative craniometric indicators of the badger scull, compared with such in martens, are almost the same, due to the close specificity of nutrition and environmental characteristics in natural biocenosis. Due to the well-developed external sagittal crest, the height of the brain relative to the total height of the scull in badger (61.02 ± 4.73%) is 1.51 times less (P < 0.001) than in marten (92 ± 6.12%). The relative length of the external sagittal crest to the total length of the badger scull is 2.17 times longer (P < 0.001) (53.1 ± 3.09 versus 24.42 ± 1.41%), compared with marten, due to the more powerful development of masticatory muscles, temporal in particular.

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Published
2019-04-02
How to Cite
Kot, T., Lutsiuk, I., & Synytskyi, O. (2019). The structural features of the sculls of animals of a series of Carnivore. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 21(93), 65-69. https://doi.org/10.32718/nvlvet9312