Pathomorphologic changes of pigs by the spontaneous ochratoxicosis
Today, the actual environmental problem of the agro-industrial complex is the damage to the fodder of vegetable origin, as well as livestock production by mycotoxins – secondary metabolites of mold fungi. Owing to the widespread spread and severe toxic effects on animals and humans, the study of ochratoxins, the main producers of Aspergillus ochraceus and Pennicilium viridicatum, is intensively studied. The pigs are very sensitive to ochratoxins, the effects of which the most pronounced changes develop in the organs of the urinary system, as well as in the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, the immune and nervous systems. Diagnosis of ochratoxicosis should be comprehensive, based on anamnestic data, clinical, pathologoanatomical and chemico-toxicological studies. In the course of the study, the pathoanatomical changes that are developing in the body of sows for ochratoxicosis are studied in detail. Also, a mycological and mycotoxicological study was conducted in which the producer of ochertoxins Aspergillus ochraceus was detected in feeds. The content of ochratoxin A in feed fed to sows varied from 8.32 mg/kg to 85.72 mg/kg, and in the kidneys its concentration was 4.34–48.33 mg/kg. In a pathologoanatomical study in the kidneys, there was a discovery of gialinosis and sclerosis of renal glomeruli, as well as hyaline droplets degeneration, necrotic changes in epithelial proximal tubule, infiltration of interstitium by lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, focal growth of connective tissue, which was accompanied by the appearance of cystic cavities in 21.4% of animals. In the gastrointestinal tract, acute catarrhal or catarrhal-hemorrhagic inflammation was detected, and in 28.57% of sows the ulcers of the fundus zone of the mucous membrane of the stomach, the development of which was accompanied by massive hemorrhage in the gastrointestinal tract and posthemorrhagic anemia. Alterative (necrotic and degenerative changes) of hepatocytes, which were most pronounced in the periportal zone of the liver lobes, as well as acute congestive hyperemia, stasis in vessels of the microcirculatory bed, focal infiltration of the stroma by lymphocytes and histiocytes, were recorded in the liver. In the peripheral organs of the immune system, necrotic changes in lymphoid cells were recorded, indicating an immunosuppressive effect of ochratoxins.
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