Influence of some etiological factors on development of gynecological patholo-gy and infertility of cats

  • O. L. Dmytryshyn Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv, Ukraine
  • V. Yu. Stefanyk Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv, Ukraine
Keywords: infertility, cats, sexual cycle, fertility, chromosomal aberration, cystular hyperplasia of the endometrium, pythometer, hysterosalpingogram, ultrasonography


The article provides an overview of professional literature on reproductive studies of cats, the definition of the main factors influencing the development of infertility in cats: hormonal changes, lack of sufficient stimulus during pairing, leading to ovulation, inability to fuse, ovarian cyst, chronic inflammatory processes in reproductive organs systems, infections, some parasites or the simplest, hereditary problems, including chromosomal abnormalities (genetic or congenital defects such as pseudoharmophioditis, true hermaphroditism, mosaicism, infantilism, freemantry) described congenital aplasia of the ovaries, trauma affecting the reproductive organs. The conditions of detention that considerably affect the reproductive system are considered. It has been established that insufficient stimulation is one of the most common causes of infertility, which is relevant for cats because they are characterized by induced ovulation. Most animals with an abnormal set of sex chromosomes are infertile, treatment methods have not been developed. Inadequate feeding is perhaps the most important cause of infertility in cats. The connection between lack and (or) excess in the diet of Calcium, Phosphorus, Iodine, Cobalt, Cuprum, Manganese, other macro-and micro elements, and inability to reproduce is established. The role of microorganisms in the emergence of infertility of cats of infectious diseases (leukemia, infectious peritonitis, panleukopenia, chlamydia, toxoplasmosis) is considered. Extension of the intraperitoneal period arises from the stage of the anestrus. Such clinical picture is observed in cats older than 8 years with hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism, obesity and cachexia, the appointment of drugs with antinuclear activity. Among gynecological diseases in cats, the most common diseases are pyometra, endometritis and vaginitis. It has been established that the most frequently diagnosed diseases of the uterus of female dogs and cats are cystular hyperplasia of the endometrium in combination with the pythometer, data on the etiopathogenesis of these diseases is given. The scientific data on the application of ultrasound diagnostics, hormonal level studies, vaginal cytology, the use of hysterosalpingography, x-ray for more accurate diagnostics of causes of infertility of cats are given.


Download data is not yet available.


Agudelo, C.F. (2005). Cystic endometrial hyperplasia – pyometra complex in cats. A review. Vet Q, 27(4), 173–182.

Amann, R.P., & Veeramachaneni, D.N. (2007). Cryptorchidism in common eutherian mammals. Re-production 133(3), 541–561. doi: 10.1530/REP-06-0272.

Axner, E. (2010). Nieplodna kotka – podejscie kliniczne. Poloznictwo i neonatologia psa i kota (Gary C.W.England, Angelika von Heimendal, Wojciech Nizanski). BSAWA – ELSEVIER, 67–73.

Axner, E., Agren, E., Baverud, V. & Holst, B.S. (2008). Infertility in the cycling queen: seven cases. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 10(6), 566–576. doi: 10.1016/j.jfms.2008.04.005.

Balogh, O., Berger, A., Pienkowska-Schelling, A., Will-mitzer, F., Grest, P., Janett, F., Schelling, C., & Reichler, I.M. (2015). 37,X/38,XY mosaicism in a cryptorchid Bengal cat with Mullerian Duct Remnants. Sexual Development, 9(6), 327–332. doi: 10.1159/000443233.

Barnette, C. (2018). Infertility in Female Cats

Brodey, R.S. (1970). Canine and feline neoplasia. Adv. Vet. Sci. Сотр. Med., 14, 309–354.

Chuprun, L.O. (2008). Perebih ta patomorfolohichni zminy v mattsi pry khronichnomu endometryti kishok. Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu veterynarnoi medytsyny ta biotekhnolo-hii im. S.Z. Hzhytskoho, 10(2), 395–399 (in Ukrainian).

Chuprun, L.O. (2011). Piometra kishok: etiolohiia, pato-henez, likuvannia: avtoreferat... kand. vet. nauk, spets.: 16.00.07 – veterynarne akusherstvo. Sumy : SNAU (in Ukrainian).

Donoghue, A.M., Johnson, L.A., Munson, L., Brown, J.L., & Wildt, D.E. (1992). Influence of gonadotrophin treatment interval on follicular maturation, in vitro fertilization, circulating steroid concentrations, and subsequent luteal function in the domestic cat. Biolo-gy of Reproduction, 46(5), 972–980. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod46.5.972.

Feldman, Je., & Nel'son, R. (2008). Jendokrinologija i reprodukcija sobak i koshek. Moskva: “Sofion” (in Russian).

Frensis, B. (2006), Ul'trazvukovaja diagnostika sobak i koshek. Moskva :Akvarium (in Russian).

Gary, C.W. (2010). England Fizjologia i endokrynologia rozrodu samic. Poloznictwo i neonatologia psa i kota (Gary C.W. England, Angelika von Heimendal, Wojciech Nizanski) – BSAWA – ELSEVIER, 1–13.

Igna, C. et al. (2009). Oestrus control with progesting end cystic endometrial hiperplazia-pyometra complex in the bitch. Lucrari Stiiniifice medicina Veterinara, XLII, 1–6.

Igna, C., et al. (2009). Oestrus control with progesting end cystic endometrial hiperplazia-pyometra complex in the bitch. Lucrari Stiiniifice medicina Veterinara, XLII, 1–6.

Kamyshnikov, B.C. (2000). Spravochnik po kliniko-biohimicheskoj laborotornoj diagnostike. Minsk: Bel-arus', 2, 495 (in Russian).

Kholsta, B.S. (2008). Zakhvoriuvannia kotiachykh, shcho peredaiutsia statevym shliakhom i pid chas shtuchnoho osimeninnia. Zdorovia dribnykh tvaryn, 9(48), 2–6 (in Ukrainian).

Kondrashin, S.A., Eremin, D.A., Koblinov, V.V. (2000). Ul'trazvukovaja diagnostika beremennosti melkih domashnih zhivotnyh: Materialy vos'mogo mezhdu-narodnogo kongressa po problemam veterinarnoj mediciny melkih domashnih zhivotnyh. Moskva, 55–56 (in Russian).

Kovalov, P.V. (2003). Tsytolohichna kartyna mazkiv iz pikhvy suk. Visn. Sumskoho nats. ahrar. un-tu, 9, 48–50 (in Ukrainian).

Kraievskyi, A.P. (2006). Diahnostyka involiutsii, subinvo-liutsii, pisliarodovoho endometrytu v koriv. Zhurnal vet. Medytsyny, 10, 21–22 (in Ukrainian).

Kustritz, M.R. (2010). Clinical canine and feline reproduc-tion. University of Minesota college of veterinary medicine: Wiley Blackwell.

Liubetskyi, V.I., & Kharuta, V. (1997). Dyferentsialna diahnostyka prykhovanoho endometrytu ta asot-siatsii hinekolohich-nykh khvorob. Akusherstvo, hinekolohiia, 8, 33–34 (in Ukrainian).

Lopate, C. (2012). Management of pregnant and neona-tal dogs, cats, and exotic pets. USA: Wiley- Blackwell.

Meyers-Wallen, V.N., & Patterson, D.F. (1989). Sexual differentiation and inherited disorders of sexual de-velopment in the dog. J Reprod Fertil Suppl., 39, 57–64.

Omelianenko, M.M. (2001). Rozpovsiudzhennia akusherskykh i hinekolohichnykh zakhvoriuvan suk i kishok ta yikh likuvannia. Naukovyi visnyk Natsion-alnoho ahrarnoho universytetu, 42, 114–118 (in Ukrainian).

Omelianenko, M.M., & Chuprun, L.O. (2014). Piometra kishok: Monohrafiia. Zhytomyr: “Polissia” (in Ukrainian).

Pope, C.E., Gomez, M.C., & Dresser, B.L. (2006). In vitro embryo production and embryo transfer in domestic and non-domestic cats. Theriogenology, 66(6–7), 1518–1524. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.01.026.

Remillard, R.L. (2008). Homemade diets: attributes, pitfalls and a call for action. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 23(3), 137–142. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2008.04.006.

Rijnberk, Ad. et al. (2010). Clinical Endocrinology of Dogs and Cats. Hannover: Schlіtersche.

Root, M.V., Johnston, S.D., & Olson, P.N. (1995). Estrous length, pregnancy rate, gestation and parturition lengths, litter size and juvenile mortality in the domes-tic cat. Journal of the American Animal Hospital As-sociation, 31(5), 429–433. doi: 10.5326/15473317-31-5-429.

Roth, T.L., Wolfe, B.A., Long, J.A., Howard, J.G., & Wildt, D.E. (1997). Effects of equine chorionic gonadotro-phin, and laparoscopic artificial insemination on em-bryo, endocrine and luteal characteristics in the do-mestic cat. Biology of Reproduction, 57(1), 65–71. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod57.1.165.

Stubbs, W.P., Bloomberg, M.S., Scurggs, S.L., Shille, V.M., & Lane, T.J. (1996). Effects of prepubertal gonadec-tomy on physical and behavioral developments in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 209(11), 1864–1871.

Szczerbal, I., Nizanski, W., Dzimira, S., Nowacka-Woszuk, J., Oсhota, M., & Switonski, M. (2015). X monosomy in a virilized female cat. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 50(2), 344–348. doi: 10.1111/rda.12483.

Szczerbal, I., Stachowiak, M., Nowacka-Woszuk, J., Dzimira, S., Szczepanska, K., & Switonski, M. (2017). Disorder of sex development in a cat with chromo-some mosaicism 37,X/38,X,r(Y). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 52(5), 914–917. doi: 10.1111/rda.12968.

Tilli, L., & Smit, F. (2001). Veterinarija. Bolezni koshek i sobak: Per. s angl. GJeOTAR-MED, 607–608 (in Rus-sian).

Tsutsui, T., Higuchi, C., Soeta, M. et al. (2009). Plasma LG, ovulation and conception rates in cats mated once on three times on different days on oestrus. Re-production in Domestic Animals, 44(2), 76–78. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01451.x.

Tsutsui, T., Sakai, Y., Matsui, Y., et al. (1989). Induced ovulation in cats using porcine pituitary gland prepa-ration during the non-breeding season. Japanese Jour-nal of Veterinary Science, 51(4), 677–683.

Uillard, M., & Gornval'd, G. (2004). Laboratornaja diag-nostika v klinike melkih domashnih zhivotnyh. Mos-kva: Akvarium (in Russian).

Verstegen, Dzh. (2005). Osobennosti fiziologii i jendokrinologii koshek. V kn.: Rukovodstvo po re-produkcii i neonatologii sobak i koshek. Pod red. Dzh. Simpson, G. Ingland, M. Harvi. Moskva: Sofion (in Russian).

Wildt, D.E., Kinney, G.M., & Seager, S.W.J. (1978). Gon-adotrophin induced reproductive cyclicity in the do-mestic cat. Laboratory Animal Science, 28(3), 301–307.

Wolfgang, K. (2004). Veterinary reproductive ultrasonog-raphy horse, sheep, coat, pig, dog, cat. Germani, Schli-tersche.

Yablonskyi, V.A., Khomyn, S.P., & Kalynovskyi, H.M. (2008). Veterynarne akusherstvo, hinekolohiia ta biotekhnolohiia vidtvorennia tvaryn z osnovamy androlohii: pidruchnyk. Vinnytsia: Nova Knyha (in Ukrainian).

Abstract views: 31
PDF Downloads: 36
How to Cite
Dmytryshyn, O., & Stefanyk, V. (2019). Influence of some etiological factors on development of gynecological patholo-gy and infertility of cats. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 21(94), 66-73.