Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare L.), as a Food-supplement in a Rearing of Piglets
The article describes the results of the study of the physiological effect on the organism of pigs - mammals and weaned piglets. Feed additives were made from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare “Aditívum do kŕmnych zmesí na báze pamajoránu”. It has been established that O. vulgare dry grass contains essential oils (0.15–0.50%), where carvacrol, thymol, cymol and other terpenes are main components. Extract of O. vulgare essential oil has a pronounced inhibitory effect on the enteropathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli hemolytic and Salmonella enteritica var. Enteritidis. In quantifying, it was found that 20% of the essential oil extract has inhibition role, which is 4 times more effective than 100%, has the largest inhibitory role. The resistant symbiotic bacterium of the gut Enterococcus faecium M-7 was not affected by essential oil. The following indicators were used to establish the physiological effect of herbal supplements on the body of piglets: increasment in body weight, resistance of piglets to diseases, the state of intestinal microflora. A control and two experimental groups were added for the experiment, where the phyto-additive was included in to the feed: the first consisted of bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum with 0.05% extract of O. vulgare (LO) essential oil and the second – only 0.05% essential oil extract О. vulgare. (O). In the two experimental groups, the pigs' health was good and their mortality was not observed either before or after weaning. The incidence was 18% before weaning and 36% after weaning in the control group. The average daily weight gaining was significant in both groups (31–36%). Moreover, piglets were larger at birth and before weaning they increased in weight to 8 times, whereas over the next 24 days their weight increased only to 50%. The difference in gaining weight between the two expirimantal groups was insignificant. The use of the herbal supplement LO is more effective than O, because the stability index of the gut microbiota gradually increases from 2.2 to 3.37 due to decrease in the number of opportunistic bacteria Escherichia coli and enterobacteria and growth of lactobacilli. Therefore, a phyto-supplement consisting of Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria with 0.05% O. vulgare (LO) essential oil extract can be recommended as a probiotic to feed mammals and weaned pigs for improving health and disease prevention.
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