Historical aspects and epizootic situation of the porcine epidemic diarrhea
The development of an epizootic situation for emergent infections is characterized by the emergence of the pathogen beyond the borders of countries and even continents. In some developed countries, the epizootic situation of PED is complex and tense. The emergence of the disease is facilitated by various factors: insufficient level of biosecurity and biosafety of farms, lack of information on the spread of infection, mechanisms of transmission of the pathogen, lack of effective means of specific prevention, etc. Changing the form of the epizootic process and the emergence of PED outbreaks in new territories have caused economic consequences for pork producers in the USA, China, South Korea, Thailand, Vietnam and others. The purpose of our work was to identify the historical aspects and epizootic situation about the PED. Scientific publications were used to analyze epizootic data. In studying the epizootic situation of PED in Ukraine, the results of laboratory studies of the Research Center for Biosafety and Environmental Control of the Agroindustrial Complex of the Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University during 2015–2018 were used. The first is from the time of the description of the disease until 2010. During this period, there was a gradual spread of PED to European and Asian countries. Epizootic outbreaks of the disease were rare and isolated, and in certain territories were enzootic. The second – from 2010 and to the present. As a result of the genome mutation, the PED virus has acquired high virulence and emergent properties. There was a transcontinental introduction of the pathogen and rapid expansion of the nosoareal of the disease. The epizootic process of PED is characterized by epizootic and panzootic forms of manifestation. Despite preventive and well-being anti-epizootic measures, the epizootic situation regarding PED in Ukraine is consistently unfavorable: Zaporizhzhia, Cherkasy, Dnipropetrovsk and Kharkiv regions were identified as the most unfavorable in relation to the PED.
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