Ethiopathogenetic aspects and laboratory diagnostics of viral respiratory-intestinal infections of calves
The results of a virological and serological study of calves, patients and deaths with symptoms of diarrhea and pneumoenteritis are presented. In the pathological material of 8 calves of 2–8 days of age, sick and deaths with signs of diarrhea, antigens of rotavirus B (62.5%) and betacoronavirus 1 (100%) were identified in direct immunofluorescence test, including 62.5% of animals with associated infection. Serological research of 17 calf convalescents revealed a diagnostic increase in antibodies to rotavirus B (52.9%) and betacoronavirus 1 (70.6%), including 23.5% of animals with seroconversion to two viruses. In a research of blood sera and colostrum on the first day, 25 cows were found to have antibodies to rotavirus B (20.0%) and beta-coronavirus 1 (32.0%) in hemagglutination inhibition test. The relationship between antibody titers in the serum and colostrum of maternal cows and blood serum of newborn calves was established. Antigens of rotaviruses A and C, ungulate boсaparvоvirus 1 and specific antibodies to them for diarrheal calf disease have not been established. In the pathological material of 11 calves of 15–20 days of age, sick and deaths with signs of pneumoenteritis, antigens of bovine mastadenovirus B (72.7%) and bovine atadenovirus D (45.5%) were identified in direct immunofluorescence test, including 18.2% of animals are associated with two viruses. In a serological research of 48 calf-convalescents, a diagnostic increase in antibody titers to bovine mastadenovirus B (66.7%) and bovine atadenovirus D (50.0%) was detected in hemagglutination inhibition test. In a study of colostrum on the first day of 22 cows, antibodies to bovine mastadenovirus B (27.3%) and bovine atadenovirus D (18.2%) were detected. Antigens of bovine mastаdenovirus A and C, pestiviruses A and B, mammalian orthoreovirus, ungulate boсaparvоvirus 1 and specific antibodies to them for pneumoenteritis of calves have not been established. Therefore, in the etiopathogenesis of diarrheal disease of newborn calves, the involvement of rotavirus B and betacoronavirus 1 was established. The presence of colostrum antibodies did not protect calves from rotavirus and coronavirus infections, did not block the secretion of viruses from feces, and correlated with their mire contents. Colostrum antibodies inhibited the body's immunological response to infection. The participation of bovine mastodenovirus and bovine atadenovirus D has been found in the etiopathogenesis of calf pneumoenteritis. These viruses latently infect adult animals as a source of infectious agents for calves.
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