Actual problems of food safety for the population living in the contaminated areas due to the Chernobyl disaster in the context of food security
The purpose of the research was to determine the current problems of food safety for the population received from radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. The material for the research was the reporting documentation of the Zhytomyr Regional State Laboratory of the State Service for Food Safety and Consumer Protection, the SLVSI of the markets of Zhytomyr and Zhytomyr region; The Rivne Regional State Laboratory of the State Service for Food Safety and Consumer Protection , the State Market for Forestry and Food of the markets of Rivne and Rivne regions; samples of meat and milk, game, wild berries and mushrooms. Radiological examination of the samples was performed on the device USK Gamma-plus No. 0502 BG. Specific activity of mushrooms was determined - on the device RUG-91. In 2017, the experts of the RSRDDPSS found that the maximum activity of milk samples exceeding 137Cs was 197 Bq/l, fresh mushrooms – 706 Bq/kg and 877 Bq/kg, dry – 2787 Bq/kg and 4193 Bq/kg. According to the DLVSE of the Zhytomyr region, the maximum activity in dried berries and mushrooms is 4000 Bq/kg and 4762 Bq/kg, respectively. The highest number of exceedances was recorded in Narodichi and Ovruc, slightly less - in Emilchin, Korosten, Luhin and Olevsky. In Ovruch region – 72.7% of samples showed exceedances, including maximum values of mushroom activity ranged from 8700 kg to 17293, 17.4 and 34.6 respectively, which exceeds the permissible levels; maximum values of 137Cs activity in milk were 123–272 Bq/l, meat (mainly wild animals) – 2243–51455 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of game significantly exceeds the regulatory requirements: from Ovruch – 2.3 times, from Lugin – 3.3 times and from Narodichi – 7.6 times. In 2018, 50% of dry mushroom samples from the Ovruch region exceeded the permitted levels: 2529-5000 Bq/kg. Accordingly, 5.8% of Yemil'chynskyi (2544–2923 Bq/kg), 7.2% of Narodichiv (3971–29022 Bq/kg). Of SLVSI studied, 69 fresh mushroom samples did not meet the regulatory requirements in Novograd-Volynsk 11.6% (866–1310 Bq/cl), Yemilchino – 8.75% (526–894 Bq/kg and Lugina 1.4% (504 Bq) According to the data, in 2018 from 7246 food samples tested, 16 samples exceeded the limit values by the content of 137Cs. kg and Narodichsky – 1531 Bq/kg. Fresh mushrooms – specific activity of 5 specimens from Ovruch district was at the level of 509.1–3375 Bq/kg), sample from Narodichsky – 1956 Bq/kg and 3 samples in the Zhytnyi market at Zhytomyr – 2328–2345 Bq/kg. Mushrooms are dry – the specific activity of the sample from the Ovruch region was 8329 Bq/kg and Olevsky 2814 Bq/kg, 2 samples from Narodychy – 4330 Bq / kg and 4987 Bq/kg. As of September 1, 2019, 3504 samples were examined by the radiological department of the Department of Radiology, 6 of which exceeded the permitted levels. Including the specific activity of the game sample from the Ovruch region was 407 Bq/kg; 2 samples of fresh mushrooms and berries from Luginsk district – 809 Bq/kg and 825 Bq/kg; sample of milk from Olevsky district – 107.4 Bq/l and Luginsky – 149.7 Bq/l.
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