Clinical sings and pathomorphologic changes of pigs by the spontaneous ochratoxicosis
The most dangerous natural contaminants of food are mycotoxins – low molecular weight secondary toxic metabolite prodacted by organisms of the fungus kingdom that suppress or toxicly affect other living organisms. Mycotoxins are a significant danger of ochratoxins, the main producers of which are Aspergillus ochraceus and Pennicilium viridicatum. The pigs are very sensitive to the effects of ochratoxins, under the influence of which the most pronounced changes develop in the organs of the urinary system, as well as in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, immune and nervous systems. The pigs are very sensitive to the effects of ochratoxin A, under the influence of which the most pronounced changes develop in the organs of the urinary system, as well as in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, immune and nervous systems. In the course of the research, complex diagnostics of spontaneous ochratoxicosis was performed, based on the anamnesis data of the results of clinical (including biochemical), pathoanatomical, mycological and chemical-toxicological studies. As a result of mycological and mycotoxicological research in feeds fed to sows revealed the producer of ochratoxins Aspergillus ochraceus. The content of ochratoxin A in feed fed to sows varied from 8.32 mg/kg to 85.72 mg/kg, and in the kidneys its concentration was 4.34–48.33 mg/kg. With ochratoxicosis, the most striking clinical symptoms (polyuria and polydipsia, accompanied by a significant increase of serum creatinine) indicate significant renal involvement, and a increase of serum activity of alanine aminotransferase levels indicates the development of necrocytic changes of the hepatocits. In a pathologoanatomical study in the gastrointestinal tract was detected acute catarrhal or catarrhal-hemorrhagic inflammation and and in 28.57% of sows the ulcers of the fundus zone of the mucous membrane of the stomach, the development of which was accompanied by massive hemorrhage in the gastrointestinal tract. It developed in the kidneys hyalinosis and sclerosis of the vascular plexus of the renal glomeruli developed, as well as hyaline-drip dystrophy, necrotic changes of nephrocytes, polymorphocellular infiltration of interstitium, which in 21.4% of sows was accompanied by the appearance of cystic in the kidneys. In the peripheral organs of the immune system, necrotic changes in the lymphoid elements were recorded. This indicates the immunosuppressive effect of ochratoxins, which also needs detailed study.
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