Pathomorphology of cats with myocardial infectious peritonitis

Keywords: cats, infectious peritonitis, FIP, heart, myocardium, cardiomyocytes, histological changes


The article presents the results of macroscopic and microscopic examinations of myocardial cats in wet and mixed forms of FIP. A pathoanatomical study of 19 cat carcasses, aged from 3 months to 7 years, was diagnosed with infectious peritonitis during life (on the basis of anamnesis, clinical features, morphological and biochemical blood test, ultrasound, Rivalt test and FCVetx rapid test VetE.) All animals were kept at home. For the microstructural study, samples of cats' hearts were selected, which were fixed in 10% aqueous formalin neutral solution, Carnua, Buen solutions and 96 ° ethyl alcohol. Histogram sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining, picrofuxin (Van Gizon), PAS reaction (McManus), methyl green pyronin (Brache), Malory, and examined under a microscope. Histological examination of the cardiac muscle of cats in various forms of infectious peritonitis revealed changes of non-inflammatory and inflammatory nature. In the exudative form, non-inflammatory processes prevailed. In the myocardium, the most severe changes occurred in the capillaries, the walls of the arterial vessels and the stroma, which were characterized by diapedic hemorrhage, mucoid and fibrinoid swelling and necrosis of the walls of the arterioles. Disorganization of connective tissue was accompanied by stratification of connective tissue fibers and impregnation of weakly oxyphilic, PAS-positive compounds of the intermuscular lumen, which was combined with dystrophic changes in cardiomyocytes. In the mixed form, proliferative-destructive vasculitis, diffuse or focal lymphoid-histiocytic infiltrates in the myocardium prevail. The revealed optical changes in the structural elements of the heart indicated a sharp weakening of the contractile function of cardiomyocytes and heart failure. In addition, it should be noted that the characteristic morphological manifestation for immunocomplex diseases is the development of vasculitis, which is preceded by fibrinoid necrosis of the walls of the arterial vessels and intensive infiltration of their circulatory elements, and these changes occurred in infectious peritonitis of cats.


Download data is not yet available.


Baydar, E., Eröksüx, Y., & Timurkan, M.O. (2014). Feline infectious peritonitis with distinct ocular involvement in a cat in Turkey. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg, 20(6), 961–965. doi: 10.9775/kvfd.2014.11195.

Brown, M. A. (2011). Genetic determinants of pathogene-sis by feline infectious peritonitis virus. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 143(3–4), 265–268. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.06.021.

Crawford, A.H., Stoll, A.L., Sanchez-Masian, D., Shea, A., Michaels, J., Fraser, A.R., & Beltran, E. (2017). Clini-copathologic Features and Magnetic Resonance Im-aging Findings in 24 Cats with Histopathologically Confirmed Neurologic Feline Infectious Peritonitis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 31(5), 1477–1486. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14791.

Ernandes, M., Cantoni, A., Armando, F., Corradi, A., Ressel, L., & Tamborini, A. (2019). Feline coronavirus-associated myocarditis in a domestic longhair cat. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Open Reports, 5(2), 2055116919879256. doi: 10.1177/2055116919879256.

Fischer Y., Wess, G., & Hartmann, K. (2012). Pericardial effusion in a cat with feline infectious peritonitis. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd, 154(1), 27–31. doi: 10.1024/0036-7281/a000289.

Galatjuk, O.Je., Peredera, O.O., Lavrinenko, I.V., & Zher-nosik, I.A. (2016). Infektsijni hvoroby kotiv. Navchal'nij posibnyk dlja vuziv II-IV rivniv akredytacii'. Zhytomyr: “Polissja” (in Ukrainian).

Golub, R., Tan, J., Watanabe, T., & Brendolan, A. (2018). Origin and Immunological Functions of Spleen Stro-mal Cells. Trends in Immunology, 39(6), 503–514. doi: 10.1016/

Goral's'kyj, L.P., Homych, V.T., & Konons'kyj, O.I. (2005). Osnovy gistologichnoi' tehniky i mor-fofunkcional'ni metody doslidzhen' u normi ta pry patologii' [Bases of histological technology and mor-phofunctional methods of research in norm and in pa-thology]. Polissja, Zhytomyr (in Ukrainian).

Günther, S., Felten, S., Wess, G., Hartmann, K., & Weber, K. (2018). Detection of feline Coronavirus in effusions of cats with and without feline infectious peritonitis using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Journal of Virological Methods, 256, 32–36. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2018.03.003.

Han, J.-I., Kang, S.-Y., Yoon, K.-J., & Na, K.-J. (2014). Nucleic acid-based differential diagnostic assays for feline coronavirus. Journal of Virological Methods, 208, 21–25. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.07.013.

Khalaniia, M.R., Kotsyumbas, G.I., & Pritsak, V.V. (2018). Pathomorphology of peripheral organs of immunogenesis in cats with spontaneous feline infec-tious peritonitis. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosys-tems, 9(3), 460–468. doi: 10.15421/021869.

Kim, Y., Liu, H., Kankanamalage, A.C.G., Weerasekara, S., Hua, D.H., Groutas, W.C., Chang, K.-O., & Peder-sen, N.C. (2016). Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor. PLoS Pathogens, 12(3), e1005531. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005531.

Kipar, A., & Meli, M.L. (2014). Feline Infectious Peritoni-tis: Still an Enigma? Veterinary Pathology, 51(2), 505–526. doi: 10.1177/0300985814522077.

Kipar, A., May, H., Menger, S., et al. (2005). Morphologic features and development of granulomatous vascu-litis in feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Pathol, 42, 321–330.

Knotek, Z., Toman, M., & Faldyna, M. (2000). Clinical and Immunological Characteristics of Cats Affected by Feline Infectious Peritonitis. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 69(1), 51–60. doi: 10.2754/avb200069010051.

Kotsan, I.Ya., Hrynchuk, V.O., Velemets, V.Kh., Shvarts, L.O., Pykaliuk, V.S. & Shevchuk, T.Ia. (2009). Anatomiia liudyny [Human anatomy]. Tsentr uch-bovoi literatury, Kyi'v (in Ukrainian).

Kudrjashov, A.A., & Balabanova, V.I. (2011). Patolo-goanatomicheskaja diagnostika boleznej sobak i ko-shek [Pathological diagnosis of diseases of dogs and cats]. Institut veterinarnoj biologii, Sankt-Peterburg (in Russian).

Lucas, S.B. (2017). Lymph node pathology in infectious diseases. Diagnostic Histopathology, 23(9), 420–430. doi: 10.1016/j.mpdhp.2017.07.002.

Lucyk, O.D., Ivanova, A.J., Kabak, K.S., & Chajkovs'kyj, Ju.B. (2003). Gistologija ljudyny [Human histology]. Knyga pljus, Kyi'v (in Ukrainian).

Merkulov, G.A. (1969). Kurs patologogystolohycheskoj tekhnyky [The course of pathohistological technique]. L.: Medycyna (in Russian).

Oliveira, L.B., Susta, L., Rech, R., et al. (2014). Pathology in practice. Effusive FIP with fibrinous epicarditis in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 245(8), 899–901. doi: 10.2460/javma.245.8.899.

Pedersen, N.C. (2014a). An update on feline infectious peritonitis: virology and immunopathogenesis. The Veterinary Journal, 201(2), 123–132. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.04.017.

Pedersen, N.C. (2014b). An update on feline infectious peritonitis: Diagnostics and therapeutics. The Veteri-nary Journal, 201(2), 133–141. doi: 10.1016/ j.tvjl.2014.04.016.

Pedersen, N.C., Liu, H., Dodd, K.A., & Pesavento, P.A. (2009). Significance of Coronavirus Mutants in Feces and Diseased Tissues of Cats Suffering from Feline Infectious Peritonitis. Viruses, 1(2), 166–184. doi: 10.3390/v1020166.

Pedersen, N.C., Liu, H., Durden, M., & Lyons, L.A. (2016). Natural resistance to experimental feline infectious peritonitis virus infection is decreased rather than in-creased by positive genetic selection. Veterinary Im-munology and Immunopathology, 171, 17–20. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2016.01.002.

Pedersen, N.C., Liu, H., Gandolfi, B., & Lyons, L.A. (2014). The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis. Veterinary Immunology and Immuno-pathology, 162(1–2), 33–40. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.09.001.

Pishak, V.P. (2008). Gistologija z osnovamy gistologich-noi' tehniky. Kyi'v: KONDOR (in Ukrainian).

Pyrs, Je. (1962). Gistohimyja [Histochemistry]. Iz-datel'stvo inostrannoj literatury, Moskva (in Russian).

Rjemsi, Ja., & Tennant, B. (2005). Infekcionnye bolezni sobak i koshek [Infectious diseases of dogs and cats]. Akvarium, Moskva (in Russian).

Rolim, V.M., Casagrande, R.A., Wouters, A.T., et al. (2016). Myocarditis caused by feline immunodefi-ciency virus in five cats with hypertrophic cardiomyo-pathy. J Comp Pathol, 154, 3–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2015.10.180.

Uillard, M., Tvedten, G., & Tornval'd, G. (2004). Labora-tornaja diagnostika v klinike melkih domashnih zhivotnyh [Small Animal Clinical Diagnosis by La-boratory Methods]. Akvarium, Moskva (in Russian).

Urbanovych P.P., Potots'kyj, M.K., Gevkan, I.I., Zon, G.A. i in. (2008). Patologichna anatomija tvaryn. K.: Vetinform (in Ukrainian).

Vandevelde, K. (2015). Immunological barriers: Func-tional histology of the spleen. The Veterinary Journal, 205(1), 3–4. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.04.033.

Ziółkowska, N., Paździor-Czapula, K., Lewczuk, B., Mikulska-Skupień, E., Przybylska-Gornowicz, B., Kwiecińska, K., & Ziółkowski, H. (2017). Feline Infec-tious Peritonitis: Immunohistochemical Features of Ocular Inflammation and the Distribution of Viral An-tigens in Structures of the Eye. Veterinary Pathology, 54(6), 933–944. doi: 10.1177/03009858177285

Abstract views: 112
PDF Downloads: 80
How to Cite
Kotsyumbas, G., & Khalaniia, M. (2019). Pathomorphology of cats with myocardial infectious peritonitis. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 21(96), 177-184.