The concentration of triiodothyronine and thyroxine in colostrum, milk and plasma of cows
Milk contains key nutrients in optimal proportions, which makes it to be an important component of the human diet. Despite the fact that consumers receive with milk a significant amount of readily available nutrients, milk can be a source of dangerous factors of chemical and biological origin. The level of physiological hormones found in milk is not a limiting factor and is studied solely for scientific purposes. However, milk hormones can have a negative effect on the health of consumers. Based on this, the aim of this work was to study the concentration of triiodothyronine and thyroxine in colostrum, milk and blood plasma of cows at different stages of lactation. The secretion of the mammary gland and blood plasma of cows of Ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed, in their 2nd–5th lactations with milk yield 5100–5700 kg of milk per previous lactation was the object of the study. The concentration of triiodothyronine and thyroxine using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was investigated in withdrawn samples. The obtained data indicates that the highest level of secretion of iodine-containing thyroid hormones with milk is observed on 1st–4th days of lactation. Thereafter, the concentration of hormones in milk statistically significant decreases by 2.8–3-fold (P ˂ 0.001) till 30–40th day of lactation. The high concentration of iodine-containing hormones in colostrum allows to enhance metabolic processes in calves. Studies of the concentration of thyroid hormones in the blood plasma of cows showed a gradual increase from the beginning of lactation till 10th–14th and then till 30th–40th days of lactation. By 10th–14th days we observed 2.2-fold growth of triiodothyronine level (P ˂ 0.001), and till 30th–40th days this parameter has increased by another 12.5 %. The level of thyroxine on 10th–14th days of lactation was higher, compared to such in the beginning of lactation by 62.2 % (P ˂ 0.001), and by 30th–40th day increase was by 40.9 %. The main reasons for such changes are the formation of lactation dominant, the discharge of hormones secreted by the breast and the stimulation of metabolic processes during lactation. The prospects of further research lie in investigation of the dependence of triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels in the secretion of the mammary gland on productivity, breed, age and diet of animals.
Duarte-Salles, T., Fedirko, V., Stepien, M., Trichopoulou, A., Bamia, C., Lagiou, P., Lukanova, A., Trepo, E., Overvad, K., Tjønneland, A., Halkjaer, J., Boutron-Ruault, M.C., Racine, A., Cadeau, C., Kühn, T., Ale-ksandrova, K., Trichopoulos, D., Tsiotas, K., Boffetta, P., Palli, D., Pala, V., Tumino, R., Sacerdote, C., Pani-co, S., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B., Dik, V.K., Peeters, P.H., Weiderpass, E., Torhild Gram, I., Hjartåker, A., Ramón Quirós, J., Fonseca-Nunes, A., Molina-Montes, E., Dorronsoro, M., Navarro Sanchez, C., Barricarte, A., Lindkvist, B., Sonestedt, E., Johansson, I., Wenn-berg, M., Khaw, K.T., Wareham, N., Travis, R.C., Ro-mieu, I., Riboli, E. & Jenab, M. (2014). Dairy products and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer, 135(7), 1662–1672. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28812.
Forhead, A. J., & Fowden, A. L. (2014). Тhyroid hormones in fetal growth and prepartum maturation. J. Endocrinol., 221(3), 87–103. doi: 10.1530/JOE-14-0025.
Foroutan, A., Guo, A. C., Vazquez-Fresno, R., Lipfert, M., Zhang, L., Zheng, J., Badran, H., Budinski, Z., Mandal, R., AmetajDavid, B. N., & Wishart, S. (2019). Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow’s Milk. J. Agric. Food Chem, 67(17), 4897–4914. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b00204.
Frezza, V., Fierro, C., Gatti, E., Peschiaroli, A., Lena, A.M., Petruzzelli, M. A., Candi, E., Anemona, L., Mauriello, A., Pelicci, P. G., Melino, G., & Bernassola, F. (2018). ΔNp63 promotes IGF1 signalling through IRS1 in squamous cell carcinoma. Aging (Albany NY), 10(12), 4224–4240. doi: 10.18632/aging.101725.
Gubskyi, Ju. I. (2000). Bіologіchna hіmіja: Pіdruchnik [Biological Chemistry: Textbook]. Ukrmedknyga, Kyiv-Ternopil (in Ukrainian).
Hammon, H. M., Steinhoff-Wagner, J., Flor J., Schönhus-en U. & Metges, C. C. (2013). Lactation Biology Symposium: role of colostrum and colostrum compo-nents on glucose metabolism in neonatal calves. J. Anim. Sci., 91(2), 685–695. doi: 10.2527/jas.2012-5758.
Malekinejad, H., & Rezabakhsh, A. (2015). Hormones in Dairy Foods and Their Impact on Public Health. A Narrative Review Article Iran J. Public Health, 44(6), 742–758. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC4524299.
Osorio, J. S., Trevisi, E., Ballou, M. A., Bertoni, G., Drack-ley, J. K., & Looret J. J. (2013). Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometa-bolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte func-tion, and neutrophil gene network expression in neo-natal Holstein heifer calves. J. Dairy Sci., 96(6), 3573–3587. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5759.
Pezzi, C., Accorsi, P., Vigo, D. Govoni, N., & Gaiani, R. (2003). 5′-deiodinase activity and circulating thyro-nines in lactating cows. J. of Dairy Science, 86(1), 152–158. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73595-4.
Rieunier, G., Wu, X., Macaulay, V. M., Lee, A. V., Weyer-Czernilofsky, U. & Bogenrieder, T. (2019). Bad to the Bone: The Role of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Ax-is in Osseous Metastasis. Clin Cancer Res., doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-2697.
Rogers, I., Emmett, P., Gunnell, D., Dunger, D., & Holly J. (2006). Milk as a food for growth? The insulin-like growth factors link. Public Health Nutr., 9(3), 359–368. doi: 10.1079/phn2006853.
Schäff, C. T., Rohrbeck, D., Steinhoff-Wagner, J., Kanitz, E., Sauerwein, H., Bruckmaier, R. M., & Hammon, H. M. (2014). Effects of colostrum versus formula feed-ing on hepatic glucocorticoid and α₁- and β₂-adrenergic receptors in neonatal calves and their ef-fect on glucose and lipid metabolism. J. Dairy Sci., 97(10), 6344–6357. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8359.
Simonov, M. R. (2013). Vmist gormoniv shhytopodibnoi' ta pryshhytopodibnoi' zaloz u plazmi krovi vysokoproduktyvnyh koriv na riznyh fazah laktacii' ta periodah utrymannja. Naukovo-tehnichnyj bjuleten' Instytut biologii' tvaryn ta DNDKI vetpreparativ ta kormovyh dobavok, 14(1-2), 59–62 (in Ukrainian).
Stojić, V., Gvozdić, D., Danijela, K., Nikolić-Ana, J., Huszenicza, G., Šamanc, H., & Ivanov, I. (2001). Se-rum thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations prior to and after delivery in primiparous holstein cows. Acta Veterinaria, 51(1), 3–8.
Tsyupko, V. V. (2010). Сomposition of cows’ butterfat in different terms after calving. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology. Ecology, 18(2). 119–122. doi: 10.15421/011036 (in Ukrainian).
Abstract views: 8 PDF Downloads: 3