Hygiene-biotic factors on the application of modern pre-and probiotics in poultry


Keywords: intensive technologies, antibiotics, opportunistic pathogenic, pathogenic microflora, probiotics, prebiotics, poultry immunity, quality poultry products, food security.

Abstract

The rapid development of poultry farming requires increasing requirements for the safety and quality of products. This is especially true for broiler chickens, turkeys and meat production. Over the past decade, research by many scientists has shown that fundamental knowledge of the conditions of interaction of the microorganism with the microflora that inhabits biotopes and the creation and widespread introduction into practice of biological products from living or lyophilized microbial cultures – probiotics – is very important. Bacterial preparations based on living microbial cultures – probiotics – have become widespread in the technological process of growing poultry in most countries of the world, including in Ukraine. The microorganisms that make up the probiotic are representative of the normal gut flora; have high antagonistic properties against opportunistic and pathogenic microflora, even those that are insensitive to many antibiotics; have the ability to activate macrophages, ie to influence the intensity of phagocytosis; have the ability to enhance the induction of interferon, ie to influence the increase of factors of natural resistance of animals; to influence the regulation of metabolism in the body of animals, vitamin balance, intestinal digestion; have the ability to produce biologically active substances. To date, studies in the field of bacteriotherapy and prevention of various pathological conditions in animals and poultry associated with disorders of the composition of the normal gut flora are quite relevant. However, in spite of the positive characteristics that pay tribute to probiotic drugs, there are still three areas of concern for improving such drugs in order to achieve their effectiveness in use. First, the microorganisms that make up the probiotic, to a greater or lesser extent, have poor patency through the upper divisions of the digestive canal due to the action of gastric juice and enzymes on them, and therefore do not reach the thick compartment in the amount required to provide required effect. Secondly, if a small number of microorganisms in the composition of the probiotic and has reached the large intestine – it can get bad in the already competitive environment of pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms already formed during this period. Third, in addition, the use of probiotics inhabits the thick intestine only by the microflora that is part of it and does not reproduce the diversity of its own microflora. The main advantages of probiotics over chemotherapeutic drugs and anti-tibiotics are that they are harmless to the body of the animal and are environmentally friendly. Due to the great attention to probiotics as environmentally friendly preparations, there is now an increase in the study of biological properties and selection of bacterial strains, the most promising in the probiotic respect. This is the direction of selection of strains specific for the intestinal biocenosis of a particular animal and poultry species, which have high colonization and antagonistic properties. Thus, nowadays, in poultry farming, it is impossible to completely abandon preventive vaccinations, disinfection, use of antibiotics, anthelmintics, coccidiostats and other chemotherapeutic drugs. After their use, the need for enriched diet of pro-and prebiotics increases many times over. This is justified by the need to improve the normal gut microbiota, which, in the first place, leads to increased nutrient uptake of feed and, as a consequence, to improve the nutritional and biological value of poultry products. However, in the current scientific literature, researchers have not sufficiently described the characteristics of the impact on the body of animals, including birds, the above nutraceuticals, also did not determine the quality and safety of slaughter products, did not substantiate their sanitary evaluation. Therefore, the development of new biotic drugs, especially domestic in time.

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Published
2020-08-22
How to Cite
Lyasota, V., & Kolodka, A. (2020). Hygiene-biotic factors on the application of modern pre-and probiotics in poultry. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 22(98), 88-93. https://doi.org/10.32718/nvlvet9816