The use of probiotics in the cultivation of turkeys
The specific microclimate of poultry premises contributes to the accumulation of microflora, which may contain pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. The concentration of microorganisms in poultry houses increases over time and reduces the resistance of the bird. Researchers have reported very high growth rates of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, which include most pathogenic bacteria, namely: gram-positive cocci (staphylococci, enterococci) and gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Salmonella spp.). Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas spp. The goal of our research was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of two probiotics for turkeys, one of which contains recombinant strains of lactic acid microorganisms of intestinal intestinal symbionts, and the other based on a mixture of biologically active substances based on natural components of organo-mineral origin. The task of our work: 1. To study the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract during the use of probiotics after the use of antiparasitic drugs in nematode invasion of turkeys. 2. Compare the growth of young animals with the use of probiotics and provide suggestions on the prospects for the most effective use of probiotics in the cultivation of turkeys. 3. Investigate changes in the physicochemical properties of turkey meat when using probiotics and compare them with controls. To conduct the experiment, three experimental groups of turkeys cross Hybrid converter, 14 days old, each with 10 heads. The first and second experimental groups were given an antiparasitic drug containing levamisole hydrochloride at a dose of 5 ml per 5 liters of water once. After that, probiotics were used for each experimental group of birds. Two types of probiotics were used in the experiments: the first contains recombinant strains of lactic acid microorganisms of intestinal intestinal symbionts: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bacillus thermophilus, Bacillus coagulance, Bacillus subtilis. Has antimicrobial, antiviral and antioxidant activity; the second preparation contains a mixture of biologically active substances, based on natural ingredients of organo-mineral origin, which includes organic substances – fulvic and humic acids. The third group (control) used only the above antiparasitic drug. After the experiment, at the age of 78 days, poultry was slaughtered and studies of the effect of probiotics on weight, physicochemical parameters of meat. When testing turkeys for helminths. As a result of research, helminths were identified, which were attributed to the causative agent of heterakidosis - Heeterakis gallibarum. After that, it was decided to carry out deworming with levamisole hydrochloride. After a course of treatment, it was found that no deaths were observed in the first experimental group; in the second experimental group, one head died, and in the third control group, which did not use probiotics, the death was two heads. The use of probiotics due to competition reduces the level of total bacterial contamination and coliform bacteria in the experimental groups. And the level of lactic acid bacteria in the experimental groups was higher than in the control. The use of probiotics had a positive effect on weight gain of experimental turkeys, compared with the control group, where probiotics were not used. The difference in the first experimental group compared with the control averaged 618 g, and in the second group – 198 g. Post-mortem examination of turkey carcasses showed that the indicators of the experimental and control groups differ. In terms of external organoleptic characteristics, the meat obtained from the slaughter of experimental birds does not differ from the meat of poultry in the control group. Conclusions and prospects for further research. The use of probiotics based on lactic acid bacteria proved to be the most effective and ensured the complete preservation of livestock. Due to competition, it reduced the level of coliform bacteria by an average of 6.67 % in the experimental groups; the level of lactic acid bacteria in the experimental groups was 4.89 % higher than in the control. The use of probiotics increased the weight gain of poultry by 3.28 %. No significant effect on the organoleptic and physicochemical properties of meat was observed.In the future it is planned to study the microflora of turkey slaughter products.
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